Advertisement

Microbial Ecology

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 1–8 | Cite as

Viral Abundance and a High Proportion of Lysogens Suggest That Viruses Are Important Members of the Microbial Community in the Gulf of Trieste

  • D. StoparEmail author
  • A. Černe
  • M. Žigman
  • M. Poljšak-Prijatelj
  • V. Turk
Article

Abstract

Epifluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to study virioplankton community in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea). The total viral abundance was in a range between 2.5 × 109/L and 2.9 × 1010/L and was positively correlated with trophic status of the environment. Viruslike particles were significantly correlated with bacterial abundance in all samples studied. Correlations with other physicochemical or biological parameters were not significant. The data suggest that, because of the substantial fraction of tailed viruses present (26%), bacteriophages are an important component of the virioplankton community in the Gulf of Trieste. The abundance of viruslike particles in the seawater changed at hour intervals in a range from 1.3 × 109/L to 5.1 × 109/L. A significant fraction (71%) of the bacterial isolates was inducible in vitro by mitomycin C, and a high occurrence (51%) of lysogenic isolates with more than one phage morphotype present in the lysate was detected. The presence of lysogenic bacteria in the seawater was confirmed in situ with a mitomycin C induction experiment on the natural bacterial population. Results suggest that virioplankton is an abundant component of the microbial community in the Gulf of Trieste.

Keywords

Bacterial Isolate Fecal Coliform Seawater Sample Host Density Temperate Phage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Slovenian Ministry of Science and Technology (No. L1-1608-0490).

References

  1. 1.
    Abedon, ST, Herschler, TD, Stopar, D 2001Bacteriophage latent-period evolution as a response to resource availability.Appl Environ Microbiol6742334241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ackermann, HW, DuBow, MS 1987Viruses of Prokaryotes.CRC PressBoca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Azam, F, Fenchel, T, Field, J, Gray, JG, Meyer-Reil, LA, Thingstad, T 1983The ecological role of water-column microbes in the sea.Mar Ecol Prog Ser10257263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bettarel, Y, Sime-Ngando, T, Amblard, C, Laveran, H 2000A comparison of methods for counting viruses in aquatic systems.Appl Environ Microbiol6622832289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boehme, J, Frischer, ME, Jiang, SC, Kellogg, CA, Pichard, S, Rose, JB, Steinway, C, Paul, JH 1993Viruses, bacterioplankton and phytoplankton in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico: distribution and contribution to oceanic DNA pools.Mar Ecol Prog Ser97110Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bratbak, G, Heldal, M, Thingstad, TF, Tuomi, P 1996Dynamics of virus abundance in coastal seawater.FEMS Microbiol Ecol19263269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cochlan, WP, Wikner, J, Steward, GF, Smith, DC, Azam, F 1993Spatial distribution of viruses, bacteria and chlorophyll a in neritic, oceanic and estuarine environments.Mar Ecol Prog Ser927787Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cochran, PK, Paul, JH 1998Seasonal abundance of lysogenic bacteria in a subtrophical estuary.Appl Environ Microbiol6423082312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fuhrman, JA 1999Marine viruses and their biogeochemical and ecological effects.Nature399541548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fuhrman, JA, Azam, F 1982Thymidine incorporation as a measure of heterotrophic bacterioplankton production in marine surface waters: evaluation and field results.Mar Biol66109120Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fuhrman, JA, Suttle, CA 1993Viruses in marine planktonic systems.Oceanography65163Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grasshoff, K, Ehrhardt, M, Kremling, K 1983Methods of Seawater Analyses.Verlag ChemieWeinheimGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hara, S, Koike, I, Terauchi, K, Kamiya, H, Tanoue, E 1996Abundance of viruses in deep oceanic waters.Mar Ecol Prog Ser145269277Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jiang, SC, Paul, JH 1994Seasonal and diel abundance of viruses and occurrence of lysogeny/bacteriocinogeny in the marine environment.Mar Ecol Prog Ser104163172Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang, SC, Paul, JH 1996Occurrence of lysogenic bacteria in marine microbial communities as determined by prophage induction.Mar Ecol Prog Ser1422738Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jiang, SC, Paul, JH 1998Gene transfer by transduction in the marine environment.Appl Environ Microbiol6427802787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jiang, SC, Paul, JH 1998Significance of lysogeny in the marine environment: studies with isolates and a model of lysogenic phage production.Microb Ecol35235243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lenski, RE 1988Dynamics of interactions between bacteria and virulent bacteriophage.Adv Microb Ecol10144Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Malej, A, Mozetič, P, Malačič, V, Turk, V 1997Response of summer phytoplankton to episodic meteorological events (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea).Mar Ecol18273288Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mozetič, P, Fonda-Umani, S, Cataletto, B, Malej, A 1998Seasonal and interannual plankton variability in the Gulf of Trieste (northeren Adriatic).J Mar Sci55711722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mozetič, P, Malacic, V, Turk, V 1999Ecological characteristics of seawater influenced by sewage outfall.Ann Ser Hist Nat9177190Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Noble, RT, Fuhrman, JA 1998Use of SYBR Green I for rapid epifluorescence counts of marine viruses and bacteria.Aquat Microb Ecol14113118Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ohnishi, M, Kurokawa, K, Hayashi, T 2001Diversification of Escherichia coli genomes: are bacteriophages the major contributors?Trends Microbiol9481485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sambrook, J, Fritsch, EF, Maniatis, T 1989Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed.Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory PressCold Spring Harbor, NYGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Steward, GF, Smith, DC, Azam, F 1996Abundance and production of bacteria and viruses in the Bering and Chukchi Sea.Mar Ecol Prog Ser131287300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Strickland, JHD, Parson, TR 1972A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis.Fish Res Bd Canada Bull..Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Suttle, CA, Chan, AM, Cottrell, MT 1991Use of ultrafiltration to isolate viruses from seawater which are pathogens of marine phytoplankton.Appl Environ Microbiol57721726Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Turk, V, Mozetič, P, Malej, A 2001Seasonal variability in phytoplankton and bacterioplankton distribution in the semi-enclosed temperate Gulf (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea).Ann Ser Hist Nat115364Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    UNEP/WHO1994Determination of faecal coliforms in sea water by the membrane filtration (MF) culture method.UNEPCopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van Hannen, EJ, Zwart, G, Van Agterveld, MP, Gons, HJ, Ebert, J, Laanbroek, HJ 1999Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic community structure after mass lysis of filamentous cyanobacteria associated with viruses.Appl Environ Microbiol65795801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weinbauer, MG, Fuks, D, Peduzzi, P 1993Distribution of viruses and dissolved DNA along a coastal trophic gradient in the northern Adriatic Sea.Appl Environ Microbiol5940744081Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Weinbauer, MG, Fuks, D, Puskaric, S, Peduzzi, P 1995Diel, seasonal, and depth-related variability of viruses and dissolved DNA in the northern Adriatic Sea.Microb Ecol302541Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Weinbauer, MG, Suttle, CA 1996Potential significance of lysogeny to bacteriophage production and bacterial mortality in coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico.Aquat Microb Ecol6243744380Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wiggins, BA, Alexander, M 1985Minimum bacterial density for bacteriophage replication: Implications for significance of bacteriophages in natural ecosystems.Appl Environ Microbiol491923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wilcox, RM, Fuhrman, JA 1994Bacterial viruses in coastal seawater: lytic rather than lysogenic production.Mar Ecol Prog Ser1143545Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wilhelm, S, Suttle, C 1999Viruses and nutrient cycles in the sea.Bioscience49781788Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wommack, EK, Colwell, RR 2000Virioplankton: viruses in aquatic ecosystems.Microbiol Mol Biol Rev6469114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    ZoBell, CE 1946Marine Microbiology.Chronica BotanicaWaltham, MAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Stopar
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Černe
    • 1
  • M. Žigman
    • 1
  • M. Poljšak-Prijatelj
    • 2
  • V. Turk
    • 3
  1. 1.Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Food TechnologyUniversity of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 LjubljanaSlovenia
  2. 2.Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Zaloska 4, SI-1000 LjubljanaSlovenia
  3. 3.National Institute of BiologyMarine Biological Station, Fornace 41, SI-6330 PiranSlovenia

Personalised recommendations