Advertisement

Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 49, Issue 12, pp 1652–1668 | Cite as

Imaging of developmental dysplasia of the hip: ultrasound, radiography and magnetic resonance imaging

  • Christian A. Barrera
  • Sara A. Cohen
  • Wudbhav N. Sankar
  • Victor M. Ho-Fung
  • Raymond W. Sze
  • Jie C. NguyenEmail author
Musculoskeletal imaging

Abstract

Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) describes a broad spectrum of developmental abnormalities of the hip joint that are traditionally diagnosed during infancy. Because the development of the hip joint is a dynamic process, optimal treatment depends not only on the severity of the dysplasia, but also on the age of the child. Various imaging modalities are routinely used to confirm suspected diagnosis, to assess severity, and to monitor treatment response. For infants younger than 4 months, screening hip ultrasound (US) is recommended only for those with risk factors, equivocal or positive exam findings, whereas for infants older than 4–6 months, pelvis radiography is preferred. Following surgical hip reduction, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is preferred over computed tomography (CT) because MR can not only confirm concentric hip joint reduction, but also identify the presence of soft-tissue barriers to reduction and any unexpected postoperative complications. The routine use of contrast-enhanced MR remains controversial because of the relative paucity of well-powered and validated literature. The main objectives of this article are to review the normal and abnormal developmental anatomy of the hip joint, to discuss the rationale behind the current recommendations on the most appropriate selection of imaging modalities for screening and diagnosis, and to review routine and uncommon findings that can be identified on post-reduction MR, using an evidence-based approach. A basic understanding of the physiology and the pathophysiology can help ensure the selection of optimal imaging modality and reduce equivocal diagnoses that can lead to unnecessary treatment.

Keywords

Children DDH Developmental dysplasia of the hip Hip Infants Magnetic resonance imaging MRI Spica cast Ultrasound 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

Dr. Sankar receives royalties from Wolter Kluwer Health for edited textbooks.

References

  1. 1.
    Patel H (2001) Preventive health care, 2001 update: screening and management of developmental dysplasia of the hip in newborns. CMAJ 164:1669–1677PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shipman SA, Helfand M, Moyer VA, Yawn BP (2006) Screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip: a systematic literature review for the US preventive services task force. Pediatrics 117:e557–e576PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wenger D, Duppe H, Tiderius CJ (2013) Acetabular dysplasia at the age of 1 year in children with neonatal instability of the hip. Acta Orthop 84:483–488PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee MC, Eberson CP (2006) Growth and development of the child's hip. Orthop Clin North Am 37:119–132PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bache CE, Clegg J, Herron M (2002) Risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip: ultrasonographic findings in the neonatal period. J Pediatr Orthop B 11:212–218PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barr LV, Rehm A (2013) Should all twins and multiple births undergo ultrasound examination for developmental dysplasia of the hip? A retrospective study of 990 multiple births. Bone Joint J 95-B:132–134PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2014) Detection and nonoperative management of pediatric developmental dysplasia of the hip in infants up to six months of age. In: Evidence-based clinical practice guideline. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, RosemontGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (2013) AIUM practice guideline for the performance of an ultrasound examination for detection and assessment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Ultrasound Med 32:1307–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    American College of Radiology (2018) AIUM-ACR-SPR-SRU practice parameter for the performance of an ultrasound examination for detection and assessment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Ultrasound Med 37:E1–e5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    American Academy of Pediatrics (2000) Clinical practice guideline: early detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Committee on Quality Improvement, Subcommittee on Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. Pediatrics 105:896–905Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    American College of Radiology (2019) ACR appropriateness criteria — developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)–child. J Am Coll Radiol 16:S94–S103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tegnander A, Holen KJ, Terjesen T (1999) The natural history of hip abnormalities detected by ultrasound in clinically normal newborns: a 6-8 year radiographic follow-up study of 93 children. Acta Orthop Scand 70:335–337PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cashman JP, Round J, Taylor G, Clarke NM (2002) The natural history of developmental dysplasia of the hip after early supervised treatment in the Pavlik harness. A prospective, longitudinal follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Br 84:418–425PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sankar WN, Nduaguba A, Flynn JM (2015) Ilfeld abduction orthosis is an effective second-line treatment after failure of Pavlik harness for infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am 97:292–297PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ucar DH, Isiklar ZU, Kandemir U, Tumer Y (2004) Treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip with Pavlik harness: prospective study in Graf type IIc or more severe hips. J Pediatr Orthop B 13:70–74PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Watanabe RS (1974) Embryology of the human hip. Clin Orthop Relat Res 98:8–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ortiz-Neira CL, Paolucci EO, Donnon T (2012) A meta-analysis of common risk factors associated with the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip in newborns. Eur J Radiol 81:e344–e351PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dezateux C, Rosendahl K (2007) Developmental dysplasia of the hip. Lancet 369:1541–1552PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Desteli EE, Piskin A, Gulman AB et al (2013) Estrogen receptors in hip joint capsule and ligamentum capitis femoris of babies with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 47:158–161PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harrison TJ (1961) The influence of the femoral head on pelvic growth and acetabular form in the rat. J Anat 95:12–24PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Strayer LM Jr (1971) Embryology of the human hip joint. Clin Orthop Relat Res 74:221–240PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nguyen JC, Markhardt BK, Merrow AC, Dwek JR (2017) Imaging of pediatric growth plate disturbances. Radiographics 37:1791–1812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Oestreich AE (2004) The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth. Skelet Radiol 33:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Siffert RS (1981) Patterns of deformity of the developing hip. Clin Orthop Relat Res:14–29Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harcke HT, Lee MS, Sinning L et al (1986) Ossification center of the infant hip: sonographic and radiographic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 147:317–321PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weinstein SL, Mubarak SJ, Wenger DR (2004) Developmental hip dysplasia and dislocation: part I. Instr Course Lect 53:523–530PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Weinstein SL, Mubarak SJ, Wenger DR (2004) Developmental hip dysplasia and dislocation: part II. Instr Course Lect 53:531–542PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chung SM (1976) The arterial supply of the developing proximal end of the human femur. J Bone Joint Surg Am 58:961–970PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Crock HV (1980) An atlas of the arterial supply of the head and neck of the femur in man. Clin Orthop Relat Res 160:17–27Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ogden JA (1974) Changing patterns of proximal femoral vascularity. J Bone Joint Surg Am 56:941–950PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ogden JA (1975) Treatment positions for congenital dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr 86:732–734PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Itokazu M, Takahashi K, Matsunaga T et al (1997) A study of the arterial supply of the human acetabulum using a corrosion casting method. Clin Anat 10:77–81PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tonnis D, Storch K, Ulbrich H (1990) Results of newborn screening for CDH with and without sonography and correlation of risk factors. J Pediatr Orthop 10:145–152PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Holen KJ, Tegnander A, Bredland T et al (2002) Universal or selective screening of the neonatal hip using ultrasound? A prospective, randomised trial of 15,529 newborn infants. J Bone Joint Surg Br 84:886–890PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rosendahl K, Markestad T, Lie RT (1994) Ultrasound screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip in the neonate: the effect on treatment rate and prevalence of late cases. Pediatrics 94:47–52PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Karnik AS, Karnik A, Joshi A (2016) Ultrasound examination of pediatric musculoskeletal diseases and neonatal spine. Indian J Pediatr 83:565–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Graf R (1980) The diagnosis of congenital hip-joint dislocation by the ultrasonic Combound treatment. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 97:117–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Novick G, Ghelman B, Schneider M (1983) Sonography of the neonatal and infant hip. AJR Am J Roentgenol 141:639–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Harcke HT, Clarke NM, Lee MS et al (1984) Examination of the infant hip with real-time ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 3:131–137PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Alamdaran SA, Kazemi S, Parsa A et al (2016) Assessment of diagnostic value of single view dynamic technique in diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of hip: a comparison with static and dynamic ultrasound techniques. Arch Bone Jt Surg 4:371–375PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Graf R, Scott S, Lercher K et al (2006) Hip sonography: diagnosis and management of infant hip dysplasia. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Copuroglu C, Ozcan M, Aykac B et al (2011) Reliability of ultrasonographic measurements in suspected patients of developmental dysplasia of the hip and correlation with the acetabular index. Indian J Orthop 45:553–557PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Meza BC, Nguyen JC, Jaremko JL, Sankar WN (2019) Coronal flexion vs. coronal neutral sonographic views in infantile DDH: an important source of variability. 1. The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Graf R (1984) Classification of hip joint dysplasia by means of sonography. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 102:248–255PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Graf R (1983) New possibilities for the diagnosis of congenital hip joint dislocation by ultrasonography. J Pediatr Orthop 3:354–359PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Roovers EA, Boere-Boonekamp MM, Mostert AK et al (2005) The natural history of developmental dysplasia of the hip: sonographic findings in infants of 1-3 months of age. J Pediatr Orthop B 14:325–330PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Omeroğlu H, Caylak R, Inan U, Köse N (2013) Ultrasonographic Graf type IIa hip needs more consideration in newborn girls. J Child Orthop 7:95–98PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chen C, Doyle S, Green D et al (2017) Presence of the ossific nucleus and risk of osteonecrosis in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip: a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies. J Bone Joint Surg Am 99:760–767PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Novais EN, Kestel LA, Carry PM, Meyers ML (2016) Higher Pavlik harness treatment failure is seen in Graf type IV Ortolani-positive hips in males. Clin Orthop Relat Res 474:1847–1854PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sibinski M, Adamczyk E, Higgs ZC, Synder M (2012) Hip joint development in children with type IIb developmental dysplasia. Int Orthop 36:1243–1246PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Terjesen T, Holen KJ, Tegnander A (1996) Hip abnormalities detected by ultrasound in clinically normal newborn infants. J Bone Joint Surg Br 78:636–640PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Boeree NR, Clarke NM (1994) Ultrasound imaging and secondary screening for congenital dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br 76:525–533PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Garvey M, Donoghue VB, Gorman WA et al (1992) Radiographic screening at four months of infants at risk for congenital hip dislocation. J Bone Joint Surg Br 74:704–707PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gardiner HM, Dunn PM (1990) Controlled trial of immediate splinting versus ultrasonographic surveillance in congenitally dislocatable hips. Lancet 336:1553–1556PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Harcke HT, Grissom LE (1990) Performing dynamic sonography of the infant hip. AJR Am J Roentgenol 155:837–844PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Duramaz A, Duramaz BB, Bilgili MG (2018) Does gestational age affect ultrasonographic findings of the hip in preterm newborns? A sonographic study of the early neonatal period. J Pediatr Orthop B 28:107–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mulpuri K, Schaeffer EK, Andrade J et al (2016) What risk factors and characteristics are associated with late-presenting dislocations of the hip in infants? Clin Orthop Relat Res 474:1131–1137PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gerscovich EO (1997) A radiologist's guide to the imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. I. General considerations, physical examination as applied to real-time sonography and radiography. Skelet Radiol 26:386–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tudor A, Sestan B, Rakovac I et al (2007) The rational strategies for detecting developmental dysplasia of the hip at the age of 4-6 months old infants: a prospective study. Coll Antropol 31:475–481PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Paton RW, Hinduja K, Thomas CD (2005) The significance of at-risk factors in ultrasound surveillance of developmental dysplasia of the hip. A ten-year prospective study J Bone Joint Surg Br 87:1264–1266PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    LeBa TB, Carmichael KD, Patton AG et al (2015) Ultrasound for infants at risk for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Orthopedics 38:e722–e726PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ashby E, Roposch A (2015) Diagnostic yield of sonography in infants with suspected hip dysplasia: diagnostic thinking efficiency and therapeutic efficiency. AJR Am J Roentgenol 204:177–181PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mace J, Paton RW (2015) Neonatal clinical screening of the hip in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip: a 15-year prospective longitudinal observational study. Bone Joint J 97-B:265–269PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tönnis D (1987) General radiography of the hip joint. In: Congenital dysplasia and dislocation of the hip in children and adults. Springer, Berlin, pp 100–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Iyer R, Chapman T (2015) Pediatric imaging: the essentials. Wolters Kluwer Health, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Donnelly LF (2017) Fundamentals of pediatric imaging. Elsevier, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Carbonell PG, de Puga DB, Vicente-Franqueira JR, Ortuno AL (2009) Radiographic study of the acetabulum and proximal femur between 1 and 3 years of age. Surg Radiol Anat 31:483–487PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tonnis D (1976) Normal values of the hip joint for the evaluation of X-rays in children and adults. Clin Orthop Relat Res 119:39–47Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Narayanan U, Mulpuri K, Sankar WN et al (2015) Reliability of a new radiographic classification for developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr Orthop 35:478–484PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Salter RB, Kostuik J, Dallas S (1969) Avascular necrosis of the femoral head as a complication of treatment for congenital dislocation of the hip in young children: a clinical and experimental investigation. Can J Surg 12:44–61PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kalamchi A, MacEwen GD (1980) Avascular necrosis following treatment of congenital dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am 62:876–888PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bucholz RW, Ogden JA (1978) Patterns of ischemic necrosis of the proximal femur in nonoperatively treated congenital hip disease. In: The hip: proceedings of the sixth open scientific meeting of the hip society. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 43–63Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Severin EA (1941) Contribution to the knowledge of congenital dislocation of the hip joint: late results of closed reduction and arthrographic studies of recent cases. Norstedt, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Roposch A, Wedge JH, Riedl G (2012) Reliability of Bucholz and Ogden classification for osteonecrosis secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip. Clin Orthop Relat Res 470:3499–3505PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Firth GB, Robertson AJF, Schepers A, Fatti L (2010) Developmental dysplasia of the hip: open reduction as a risk factor for substantial osteonecrosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 468:2485–2494PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ali AM, Angliss R, Fujii G et al (2001) Reliability of the Severin classification in the assessment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr Orthop B 10:293–297PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Roposch A, Liu LQ, Offiah AC, Wedge JH (2011) Functional outcomes in children with osteonecrosis secondary to treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am 93:e145PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pollet V, Van Dijk L, Reijman M et al (2018) Long-term outcomes following the medial approach for open reduction of the hip in children with developmental dysplasia. Bone Joint J 100-B:822–827PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Roposch A, Stohr KK, Dobson M (2009) The effect of the femoral head ossific nucleus in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. A meta-analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 91:911–918PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Roposch A, Odeh O, Doria AS, Wedge JH (2011) The presence of an ossific nucleus does not protect against osteonecrosis after treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Clin Orthop Relat Res 469:2838–2845PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sankar WN, Gornitzky AL, Clarke NMP et al (2019) Closed reduction for developmental dysplasia of the hip: early-term results from a prospective, multicenter cohort. J Pediatr Orthop 39:111–118PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Westhoff B, Wild A, Seller K, Krauspe R (2003) Magnetic resonance imaging after reduction for congenital dislocation of the hip. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 123:289–292PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rosenbaum DG, Servaes S, Bogner EA et al (2016) MR imaging in postreduction assessment of developmental dysplasia of the hip: goals and obstacles. Radiographics 36:840–854PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Smith BG, Millis MB, Hey LA et al (1997) Postreduction computed tomography in developmental dislocation of the hip: part II: predictive value for outcome. J Pediatr Orthop 17:631–636PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jadhav SP, More SR, Shenava V et al (2018) Utility of immediate postoperative hip MRI in developmental hip dysplasia: closed vs. open reduction. Pediatr Radiol 48:1096–1100PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chin MS, Betz BW, Halanski MA (2011) Comparison of hip reduction using magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography in hip dysplasia. J Pediatr Orthop 31:525–529PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Laor T, Roy DR, Mehlman CT (2000) Limited magnetic resonance imaging examination after surgical reduction of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr Orthop 20:572–574PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    McNally EG, Tasker A, Benson MK (1997) MRI after operative reduction for developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br 79:724–726PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bachy M, Thevenin-Lemoine C, Rogier A et al (2012) Utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after closed reduction of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Child Orthop 6:13–20PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fukiage K, Yamasaki N, Suzuki S (2014) Visualization of developmental dysplasia of the hip in infants by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. J Pediatr Orthop Br 23:107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gould SW, Grissom LE, Niedzielski A et al (2012) Protocol for MRI of the hips after Spica cast placement. J Pediatr Orthop 32:504–509PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bedoya MA, Jaimes C, Khrichenko D et al (2014) Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the proximal femur: preliminary experience in healthy children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 203:W440–W446PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tiderius C, Jaramillo D, Connolly S et al (2009) Post-closed reduction perfusion magnetic resonance imaging as a predictor of avascular necrosis in developmental hip dysplasia: a preliminary report. J Pediatr Orthop 29:14–20PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Elbourne D, Dezateux C, Arthur R et al (2002) Ultrasonography in the diagnosis and management of developmental hip dysplasia (UK hip trial): clinical and economic results of a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 360:2009–2017PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jaremko JL, Wang CC, Dulai S (2014) Reliability of indices measured on infant hip MRI at time of Spica cast application for dysplasia. Hip Int 24:405–416PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Duffy CM, Taylor FN, Coleman L et al (2002) Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of surgical management in developmental dysplasia of the hip in childhood. J Pediatr Orthop 22:92–100PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ramsey PL, Lasser S, MacEwen GD (1976) Congenital dislocation of the hip. Use of the Pavlik harness in the child during the first six months of life J Bone Joint Surg Am 58:1000–1004Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jaramillo D, Villegas-Medina OL, Doty DK et al (1995) Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging demonstrates abduction-caused hip ischemia and its reversal in piglets. Pediatr Radiol 25:578–587PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rivlin MJ, Kan JH, Schallert EK et al (2016) Spica magnetic resonance imaging for determination of abduction angle: initial results and reproducibility assessment. J Child Orthop 10:381–385PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    DeFrancesco CJ, Blumberg TJ, Chauvin NA, Sankar WN (2017) An improved method for measuring hip abduction in Spica after surgical reduction for developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Child Orthop 11:277–283PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Thomas IH, Dunin AJ, Cole WG, Menelaus MB (1989) Avascular necrosis after open reduction for congenital dislocation of the hip: analysis of causative factors and natural history. J Pediatr Orthop 9:525–531PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Madhu TS, Akula M, Scott BW, Templeton PA (2013) Treatment of developmental dislocation of hip: does changing the hip abduction angle in the hip Spica affect the rate of avascular necrosis of the femoral head? J Pediatr Orthop B 22:184–188PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Gornitzky AL, Georgiadis AG, Seeley MA et al (2016) Does perfusion MRI after closed reduction of developmental dysplasia of the hip reduce the incidence of avascular necrosis? Clin Orthop Relat Res 474:1153–1165PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ge Y, Cai H, Wang Z (2016) Quality of reduction and prognosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip: a retrospective study. Hip Int 26:355–359PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mitchell PD, Chew NS, Goutos I et al (2007) The value of MRI undertaken immediately after reduction of the hip as a predictor of long-term acetabular dysplasia. J Bone Joint Surg Br 89:948–952PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jaramillo D, Villegas-Medina O, Laor T et al (1998) Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of pediatric patients after reduction of dysplastic hips: assessment of femoral head position, factors impeding reduction, and femoral head ischemia. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170:1633–1637PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Talathi NS, Chauvin NA, Sankar WN (2018) Docking of the femoral head following closed reduction for DDH: does it really occur? J Pediatr Orthop 38:e440–e445PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Haruno LS, Kan JH, Rivlin MJ et al (2019) Spica MRI predictors for epiphyseal osteonecrosis after closed reduction treatment of dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr Orthop B.  https://doi.org/10.1097/BPB.0000000000000606 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Brougham DI, Broughton NS, Cole WG, Menelaus MB (1990) Avascular necrosis following closed reduction of congenital dislocation of the hip. Review of influencing factors and long-term follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Br 72:557–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Barnewolt CE, Shapiro F, Jaramillo D (1997) Normal gadolinium-enhanced MR images of the developing appendicular skeleton: part I. cartilaginous epiphysis and physis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 169:183–189PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Dwek JR, Shapiro F, Laor T et al (1997) Normal gadolinium-enhanced MR images of the developing appendicular skeleton: part 2. Epiphyseal and metaphyseal marrow. AJR Am J Roentgenol 169:191–196PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Novais EN, Hill MK, Carry PM, Heyn PC (2016) Is age or surgical approach associated with osteonecrosis in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip? A meta-analysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 474:1166–1177PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Perelman School of Medicine at the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations