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Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 49, Issue 13, pp 1762–1772 | Cite as

Subdural hemorrhage rebleeding in abused children: frequency, associations and clinical presentation

  • Jason N. Wright
  • Timothy J. Feyma
  • Gisele E. Ishak
  • Sergey Abeshaus
  • James B. Metz
  • Emily C. B. Brown
  • Seth D. Friedman
  • Samuel R. Browd
  • Kenneth W. FeldmanEmail author
Original Article
  • 267 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Limited documentation exists about how frequently radiologically visible rebleeding occurs with abusive subdural hemorrhages (SDH). Likewise, little is known about rebleeding predispositions and associated symptoms.

Objective

To describe the frequency of subdural rebleeding after abusive head trauma (AHT), its predispositions and clinical presentation.

Materials and methods

We evaluated children with SDHs from AHT who were reimaged within a year of their initial hospitalization, retrospectively reviewing clinical details and imaging. We used the available CT and MR images. We then performed simple descriptive and comparative statistics.

Results

Fifty-four of 85 reimaged children (63.5%) with AHT-SDH rebled. No child had new trauma, radiologic evidence of new parenchymal injury or acute neurologic symptoms from rebleeding. From the initial presentation, macrocephaly was associated with subsequent rebleeding. Greater subdural depth, macrocephaly, ventriculomegaly and brain atrophy at follow-up were associated with rebleeding. No other radiologic findings at initial presentation or follow-up predicted rebleeding risk, although pre-existing brain atrophy at initial admission and initial chronic SDHs barely missed significance. Impact injuries, retinal hemorrhages and clinical indices of initial injury severity were not associated with rebleeding. All rebleeding occurred within chronic SDHs; no new bridging vein rupture was identified. The mean time until rebleeding was recognized was 12 weeks; no child had rebleeding after 49 weeks.

Conclusion

Subdural rebleeding is common and occurs in children who have brain atrophy, ventriculomegaly, macrocephaly and deep SDHs at rebleed. It usually occurs in the early months post-injury. All children with rebleeds were neurologically asymptomatic and lacked histories or clinical or radiologic findings of new trauma. Bleeds did not occur outside of chronic SDHs. We estimate the maximum predicted frequency of non-traumatic SDH rebleeding accompanied by acute neurological symptoms in children with a prior abusive SDH is 3.5%.

Keywords

Abusive head trauma Child abuse Computed tomography Infants Magnetic resonance imaging Subdural hemorrhage Subdural rebleeding 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Matty Eappen Foundation provided partial funding for the parent epidemiology study that provided some of the AHT subjects, but the foundation had no role in the current study design or execution, or the development of this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

Drs. Metz, Brown and Feldman have provided legal consultation and testimony in child abuse cases.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason N. Wright
    • 1
    • 2
  • Timothy J. Feyma
    • 3
  • Gisele E. Ishak
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sergey Abeshaus
    • 4
  • James B. Metz
    • 5
  • Emily C. B. Brown
    • 2
    • 6
  • Seth D. Friedman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Samuel R. Browd
    • 2
    • 7
  • Kenneth W. Feldman
    • 2
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of RadiologySeattle Children’s Hospital, Harborview Medical CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyGillette Children’s Specialty Health CareSt. PaulUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryRambam Health Care CampusHaifaIsrael
  5. 5.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Vermont School of MedicineBurlingtonUSA
  6. 6.Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Protection Program, M/S SB-250Seattle Children’s Hospital, Harborview Medical CenterSeattleUSA
  7. 7.Department of Neurological SurgerySeattle Children’s Hospital, Harborview Medical CenterSeattleUSA

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