Early imaging findings in germ cell tumors arising from the basal ganglia
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It is difficult to diagnosis early stage germ cell tumors originating in the basal ganglia, but early recognition is important for better outcome.
To evaluate serial MR images of basal ganglia germ cell tumors, with emphasis on the features of early stage tumors.
Materials and methods
We retrospectively reviewed serial MR images of 15 tumors in 14 children and young adults. We categorized MR images of the tumors as follows: type I, ill-defined patchy lesions (<3 cm) without cyst; type II, small mass lesions (<3 cm) with cyst; and type III, large lesions (≥3 cm) with cyst. We also assessed temporal changes of the MR images.
On the initial images, 8 of 11 (73%) type I tumors progressed to types II or III, and 3 of 4 (75%) type II tumors progressed to type III. The remaining 4 tumors did not change in type. All type II tumors (5/5, 100%) that changed from type I had a few tiny cysts. Intratumoral hemorrhage was observed even in the type I tumor. Ipsilateral hemiatrophy was observed in most of the tumors (13/15, 87%) on initial MR images. As tumors grew, cystic changes, intratumoral hemorrhage, and ipsilateral hemiatrophy became more apparent.
Early stage basal ganglia germ cell tumors appear as ill-defined small patchy hyperintense lesions without cysts on T2-weighted images, are frequently associated with ipsilateral hemiatrophy, and sometimes show microhemorrhage. Tumors develop tiny cysts at a relatively early stage.
KeywordsAdolescent Basal ganglia Child Early stage Germ cell tumor Magnetic resonance imaging Serial images
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
- 3.Raybaud C, Barkovich AJ et al (2012) Intracranial, orbital, and neck masses of childhood. In: Barkovich AJ, Raybaud C (eds) Pediatric neuroimaging. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar