Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in children
MRI is an important additional tool in the diagnostic work-up of children with congenital heart disease. This review aims to summarise the role MRI has in this patient population. Echocardiography remains the main diagnostic tool in congenital heart disease. In specific situations, MRI is used for anatomical imaging of congenital heart disease. This includes detailed assessment of intracardiac anatomy with 2-D and 3-D sequences. MRI is particularly useful for assessment of retrosternal structures in the heart and for imaging large vessel anatomy. Functional assessment includes assessment of ventricular function using 2-D cine techniques. Of particular interest in congenital heart disease is assessment of right and single ventricular function. Two-dimensional and newer 3-D techniques to quantify flow in these patients are or will soon become an integral part of quantification of shunt size, valve function and complex flow patterns in large vessels. More advanced uses of MRI include imaging of cardiovascular function during stress and tissue characterisation of the myocardium. Techniques used for this purpose need further validation before they can become part of the daily routine of MRI assessment of congenital heart disease.
KeywordsCongenital heart disease Magnetic resonance imaging Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging Ventricular function Child
Conflicts of interest
- 6.Valsangiacomo Buechel ER, Grosse-Wortmann L, Fratz S et al. (2014) Indications for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in children with congenital and acquired heart disease - An expert consensus paper of the Imaging Working Group of the AEPC and the Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Section of the EACVI. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging AND Cardiology in the Young in press.Google Scholar
- 10.Feder E, Meisner H, Bühlmeyer K et al (1980) Operative treatment of TGA: comparison of senning’s and mustard’s operation in patients under 2 years. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 28:7–12Google Scholar
- 26.Robbers-Visser D, Boersma E, Helbing WA (2009) Normal biventricular function, volumes, and mass in children aged 8 to 17 years. J Magn Reson Imaging 29:552–559Google Scholar
- 38.Kempny A, Fernandez-Jimenez R, Orwat S et al (2012) Quantification of biventricular myocardial function using cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking, endocardial border delineation and echocardiographic speckle tracking in patients with repaired tetralogy of fallot and healthy controls. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 14:32PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar