Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 43, Supplement 1, pp 8–22 | Cite as

Musculoskeletal ultrasonography of the lower extremities in infants and children

  • Michael J. Callahan
Pediatric Musculoskeletal Imaging: Beyond the Basics


Ultrasonography is a powerful diagnostic imaging tool for evaluating lower extremity anatomy and pathology in children. Indications for pediatric musculoskeletal lower extremity sonography include developmental dysplasia of the hip, hip joint sonography for the child with a painful hip, evaluation and characterization of superficial soft-tissue masses, evaluation for deep venous thrombosis, and foreign body localization, characterization and removal. This review highlights these established indications, but primarily focuses on additional US applications for evaluation of the lower extremities, including diagnosis and characterization of arthritis and monitoring of therapy, evaluation of tendon tears and muscle strain injuries, characterization of soft-tissue masses and evaluation of certain congenital abnormalities of the lower extremities. Techniques for optimal utilization of musculoskeletal US in children are also discussed.


Musculoskeletal US Children Hip Knee Ankle Leg Congenital Rheumatology Tumor Trauma Vascular malformation Infection Inflammation 



The author would like to thank Drs. Sarah Bixby, Harriet Paltiel and Susan Connolly for providing images for this manuscript and Rhonda Johnson for her help in preparing this document.


The author has no financial interests, investigational or off-label uses to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital BostonHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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