The trochlear pre-ossification center: a normal developmental stage and potential pitfall on MR images
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The hypertrophic changes that occur in the cartilage of an epiphysis prior to the onset of ossification are known as the pre-ossification center. Awareness of the appearance of the pre-ossification center on MR images is important to avoid confusing normal developmental changes with pathology.
The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the trochlear pre-ossification center on MR imaging and examine age and gender differences.
Materials and methods
We retrospectively analyzed MR images from 61 children. The trochleas were categorized into three types on the basis of signal intensity (SI). Trochlear types were compared to age and gender.
There was no significant difference between the ages of boys and girls. Type 1 trochleas showed homogeneous SI on all pulse sequences. Type 2 trochleas demonstrated a focus of high SI in the epiphyseal cartilage on fat-suppressed water-sensitive sequences, with high or intermediate SI on gradient-echo images (pre-ossification center). Type 3 trochleas showed low SI on fat-suppressed water-sensitive sequences and gradient-echo images. Thirty-seven trochleas were described as type 1, sixteen as type 2 and eight as type 3. ANOVAs confirmed a statistically significant difference in the age of children with type 3 trochleas and those with types 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). Spearman rank correlations determined a positive relationship between trochlear type and age of the children (r = 0.53).
Development-related changes in the trochlea follow a predictable pattern. The signal characteristics of the pre-ossification center likely reflect normal chondrocyte hypertrophy and an increase in free water in the matrix.
KeywordsElbow MRI Ossification Children Skeletal maturation Pre-ossification center
Conflict of interest
We have no conflicts of interest to declare.