CT features of lymphobronchial tuberculosis in children, including complications and associated abnormalities
- 444 Downloads
Lymphobronchial tuberculosis (TB) is tuberculous lymphadenopathy involving the airways, which is particularly common in children.
To describe CT findings of lymphobronchial TB in children, the parenchymal complications and associated abnormalities.
Materials and methods
CT scans of children with lymphobronchial TB were reviewed retrospectively. Lymphadenopathy, bronchial narrowing, parenchymal complications and associations were documented.
Infants comprised 51% of patients. The commonest site of lymphadenopathy was the subcarinal mediastinum (97% of patients). Bronchial compression was seen in all children (259 bronchi, of these 28% the bronchus intermedius) with severe or complete stenosis in 23% of affected bronchi. Parenchymal complications were present in 94% of patients, including consolidation (88%), breakdown (42%), air trapping (38%), expansile pneumonia (28%), collapse (17%) and bronchiectasis (9%), all predominantly on the right side (63%). Associated abnormalities included ovoid lesions, miliary nodules, pleural disease and intracavitary bodies.
Airway compression was more severe in infants and most commonly involved the bronchus intermedius. Numerous parenchymal complications were documented, all showing right-side predominance.
KeywordsTuberculosis Child CT Chest Lymphadenopathy
- 1.WHO (2010) Global tuberculosis control: a short update to the 2009 report. http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2009/update/en/index.html Accessed on 22/3/2010
- 4.Daltro PA, Nunez-Santos E (2008) Pediatric tuberculosis. In: Lucaya J, Strife JL (eds) Pediatric chest imaging: chest imaging in infants and children. Springer, Berlin, pp 165–181Google Scholar
- 7.Gie RP, Goussard P, Kling S et al (2004) Unusual forms of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children and their management. Paediatr Respir Rev 5 Suppl A:S139–S141Google Scholar
- 10.Andronikou S, Wieslthaler N (2009) Imaging for tuberculosis in children. In: Schaaf HS, Zumla A (eds) Tuberculosis: a comprehensive clinical reference. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 261–295Google Scholar
- 16.Respiration and circulation (biological handbooks) (1971) Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Bethesda, MD, pp 105–108Google Scholar
- 17.Weibel ER (1963) Morphometry of the human lung. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- 18.The lung: scientific foundations (1997) (2nd edn) Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 1064–1066Google Scholar
- 34.Maydell A, Goussard P, Andronikou S et al (2010) Radiological changes post-lymph node enucleation for airway obstruction in children with pulmonary tuberculosis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 38:478–483Google Scholar