Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 660–667 | Cite as

Voiding urosonography including urethrosonography: high-quality examinations with an optimised procedure using a second-generation US contrast agent

  • Carmina DuranEmail author
  • Javier del Riego
  • Luis Riera
  • Cesar Martin
  • Carlos Serrano
  • Pau Palaña
Original Article



Voiding urosonography (VUS) is established as a technique for detecting vesicoureteral reflux in children.


To evaluate the quality of images of the entire urinary tract when using a second-generation US contrast agent and a modified VUS technique.

Materials and methods

We evaluated 307 VUS examinations performed using SonoVue® in 591 pelvi-ureter units in 295 children of mean age, 27.1 (S.D., 42.5) months, with 154 (50.2%) of the examinations performed in boys; 58 children also underwent VUS using Levovist®. Three criteria were used for quality assessment of the bladder image: (1) progressive incorporation of contrast material in the bladder, (2) homogeneous bladder-filling to maximum capacity, and (3) visualisation of the posterior bladder wall.


Criterion 1 was fulfilled in 305 (99.3%), criterion 2 in 304 (99%) and criterion 3 in 304 (99%) studies. In children who underwent VUS with both contrast agents, the concordance between the two techniques was moderate for findings in the bladder (Cohen K = 0.487; P < 0001) and perfect for findings in the male urethra.


By a modified technique we obtained high-quality images of the bladder with the second-generation contrast agent.


Vesicoureteral reflux Voiding urosonography Second-generation contrast agent Child 



Special thanks to Inés Artacho, Antoni Malet Munte MD, Eva Castañer MD, John Giba, and Joan Carles Oliva.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmina Duran
    • 1
    Email author
  • Javier del Riego
    • 1
  • Luis Riera
    • 1
  • Cesar Martin
    • 1
  • Carlos Serrano
    • 1
  • Pau Palaña
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, UDIAT-Centre DiagnòsticInstitut Universitari Parc Taulí-UABSabadellSpain

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