Urea cycle disorders: brain MRI and neurological outcome
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- Bireley, W.R., Van Hove, J.L.K., Gallagher, R.C. et al. Pediatr Radiol (2012) 42: 455. doi:10.1007/s00247-011-2253-6
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Urea cycle disorders encompass several enzyme deficiencies that can result in cerebral damage, with a wide clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to severe.
The goal of this study was to correlate brain MRI abnormalities in urea cycle disorders with clinical neurological sequelae to evaluate whether MRI abnormalities can assist in guiding difficult treatment decisions.
Materials and methods
We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with urea cycle disorders and symptomatic hyperammonemia. Brain MRI images were reviewed for abnormalities that correlated with severity of clinical neurological sequelae.
Our case series comprises six urea cycle disorder patients, five with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and one with citrullinemia type 1. The observed trend in distribution of brain MRI abnormalities as the severity of neurological sequelae increased was the peri-insular region first, extending into the frontal, parietal, temporal and, finally, the occipital lobes. There was thalamic restricted diffusion in three children with prolonged hyperammonemia. Prior to death, this site is typically reported to be spared in urea cycle disorders.
The pattern and extent of brain MRI abnormalities correlate with clinical neurological outcome in our case series. This suggests that brain MRI abnormalities may assist in determining prognosis and helping clinicians with subsequent treatment decisions.
KeywordsUrea cycle disorder Ornithine transcarbamylase Outcome Citrullinemia Children
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency
- CIT 1
Citrullinemia type 1