Three-dimensional cine MRI in free-breathing infants and children with congenital heart disease



Patients with congenital heart disease frequently have complex cardiac and vascular malformations requiring detailed non-invasive diagnostic evaluation including functional parameters.


To evaluate the morphological and functional information provided by a novel 3-D cine steady-state free-precession (SSFP) sequence.

Materials and methods

Twenty consecutive children (mean age 2.2 years, nine boys) were examined using a 1.5-T MR system including 2-D cine gradient-recalled-echo sequences, static 3-D SSFP and 3-D cine SSFP sequences.


Measurement of ventricular structures and volumes showed close agreement between the 3-D cine SSFP sequence and the 2-D cine gradient-recalled-echo and static 3-D SSFP sequences (left ventricular volumes mean difference 1.0–1.9 ml and 8.8–11.4%, respectively; right ventricular volumes 1.7–2.1 ml and 9.9–16.9%, respectively). No systematic bias was observed.


3-D cine MRI provides anatomic as well as functional information with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution in free-breathing infants with congenital heart disease.

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We thank the ‘Stiftung zur Förderung und Erfassung von Zivillisationserkrankungen’ foundation for support of the study and A. Greiser (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) for technical support.

Author information

Correspondence to Achim Seeger.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Patient No.15. Left side reformatted four-chamber 3-D cine SSFP data; right side 2-D GRE sequence (MPG 1818 kb)

Animation 1

Patient No.15. Left side reformatted four-chamber 3-D cine SSFP data; right side 2-D GRE sequence (MPG 1818 kb)

Animation 2

3-D cine SSFP (MPG 2928 kb)

Animation 3

2-D GRE cine files of patient No.5 (MPG 27359 kb)

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Seeger, A., Fenchel, M.C., Greil, G.F. et al. Three-dimensional cine MRI in free-breathing infants and children with congenital heart disease. Pediatr Radiol 39, 1333 (2009) doi:10.1007/s00247-009-1390-7

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  • Cardiac
  • Cine
  • MRI
  • Children
  • Cardiac MRI
  • 3D cine
  • 4D
  • Congenital heart disease