Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 39, Issue 10, pp 1038–1047 | Cite as

Performance of PROPELLER relative to standard FSE T2-weighted imaging in pediatric brain MRI

  • A. Talia Vertinsky
  • Erika Rubesova
  • Michael V. Krasnokutsky
  • Sabine Bammer
  • Jarrett Rosenberg
  • Allan White
  • Patrick D. Barnes
  • Roland Bammer
Original Article



T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging (T2-W FSE) is frequently degraded by motion in pediatric patients. MR imaging with periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) employs alternate sampling of k-space to achieve motion reduction.


To compare T2-W PROPELLER FSE (T2-W PROP) with conventional T2-W FSE for: (1) image quality; (2) presence of artefacts; and (3) ability to detect lesions.

Materials and methods

Ninety-five pediatric patients undergoing brain MRI (1.5 T) were evaluated with T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP. Three independent radiologists rated T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP, assessing image quality, presence of artefacts, and diagnostic confidence. Chi-square analysis and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess the radiologists’ responses.


Compared with T2-W FSE, T2-W PROP demonstrated better image quality and reduced motion artefacts, with the greatest benefit in children younger than 6 months. Although detection rates were comparable for the two sequences, blood products were more conspicuous on T2-W FSE. Diagnostic confidence was higher using T2-W PROP in children younger than 6 months. Average inter-rater agreement was 87%.


T2-W PROP showed reduced motion artefacts and improved diagnostic confidence in children younger than 6 months. Thus, use of T2-W PROP rather than T2-W FSE should be considered in routine imaging of this age group, with caution required in identifying blood products.


MRI Brain Motion reduction PROPELLER Children 


  1. 1.
    Thorpe JW, Halpin SF, MacManus DG et al (1994) A comparison between fast and conventional spin-echo in the detection of multiple sclerosis lesions. Neuroradiology 36:388–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Engelbrecht V, Malms J, Kahn T et al (1996) Fast spin-echo MR imaging of the pediatric brain. Pediatr Radiol 26:259–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Academy of Pediatrics (1992) Guidelines for monitoring and management of pediatric patients during and after sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Pediatrics 89:1110–1115Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sugahara T, Korogi Y, Hirai T et al (1997) Comparison of HASTE and segmented-HASTE sequences with a T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence in screening evaluation of the brain. AJR 169:1401–1410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mittal TK, Halpin SF, Bourne MW et al (1999) A prospective comparison of brain contrast characteristics and lesion detection using single-shot fast spin-echo and fast spin-echo. Neuroradiology 41:480–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ba-Ssalamaha A, Schick S, Heimberger K et al (2000) Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Magn Reson Imaging 18:237–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ge Y, Korogi Y, Sugahara T et al (2001) Comparison between EPI and HASTE for ultra-fast MR imaging of the human brain. Neuroradiology 43:1046–1055PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pipe JG (1999) Motion correction with PROPELLER MRI: application to head motion and free-breathing cardiac imaging. Magn Reson Med 42:963–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Forbes KP, Pipe JG, Karis JP et al (2003) Brain imaging in the unsedated pediatric patient: comparison of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction and single-shot fast spin-echo sequences. AJNR 24:794–798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wintersperger BJ, Runge VM, Biswas J et al (2006) Brain magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla using BLADE compared with standard rectilinear data sampling. Invest Radiol 41:586–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alibek S, Adamietz B, Cavallaro A et al (2008) Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery BLADE magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: an alternative to spin-echo technique for detection of brain lesions in the unsedated pediatric patient? Acad Radiol 15:986–995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shaw DW, Weinberger E, Astley SJ et al (1997) Quantitative comparison of conventional spin echo and fast spin echo during brain myelination. J Comput Assist Tomogr 21:867–871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ahn SS, Mantello MT, Jones KM et al (1992) Rapid MR imaging of the pediatric brain using fast spin-echo technique. AJNR 13:1169–1177PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Talia Vertinsky
    • 1
    • 2
  • Erika Rubesova
    • 3
  • Michael V. Krasnokutsky
    • 4
    • 5
  • Sabine Bammer
    • 3
  • Jarrett Rosenberg
    • 6
  • Allan White
    • 3
  • Patrick D. Barnes
    • 3
  • Roland Bammer
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyVancouver General HospitalVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Lucile Salter Packard Children’s HospitalStanford University Medical CenterPalo AltoUSA
  4. 4.Department of RadiologyMadigan Army Medical CenterTacomaUSA
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyUniformed Services University of Health SciencesBethesdaUSA
  6. 6.Department of RadiologyLucas Center, Stanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA

Personalised recommendations