Pediatric Radiology

, 39:569 | Cite as

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children

  • Tracy KilbornEmail author
  • Marco Zampoli


The outcome of HIV infection has improved since the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Some patients, however, develop a clinical and radiological deterioration following initiation of HAART due to either the unmasking of occult subclinical infection or an enhanced inflammatory response to a treated infection. This phenomenon is believed to result from the restored ability to mount an immune response and is termed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) or immune reconstitution disease. IRIS is widely reported in the literature in adult patients, most commonly associated with mycobacterial infections. There is, however, a paucity of data documenting the radiological findings of IRIS in children. Radiologists need to be aware of this entity. As a diagnosis of exclusion it is essential that the radiological findings be assessed in the context of the clinical presentation. This article reviews the common clinical and radiological manifestations of IRIS in HIV-infected children.


HIV Highly active antiretroviral therapy Immune reconstitution inflammatory disease Tuberculosis Children 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Paediatric RadiologyRed Cross War Memorial Children’s HospitalCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Paediatric PulmonologyRed Cross War Memorial Children’s HospitalCape TownSouth Africa

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