Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 39, Supplement 2, pp 178–183 | Cite as

What imaging should we perform for the diagnosis and management of pulmonary infections?



Pneumonia Empyema Radiography Ultrasonography Computed tomography Image-guided percutaneous intervention 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Virkki R, Juven T, Rikalainen H et al (2002) Differentiation of bacterial and viral pneumonia in children. Thorax 57:438–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Korppi M, Kiekara O, Heiskanen-Kosma T et al (1993) Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia. Acta Paediatr 82:360–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z et al (2008) Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull WHO 86:408–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4. website (2005) Pneumonia among Children in Developing Countries. of subordinate document. Accessed Dec 29, 2008
  5. 5.
    Murphy TF, Henderson FW, Clyde WA Jr et al (1981) Pneumonia: an eleven-year study in a pediatric practice. Am J Epidemiol 113:12–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sawicki GS, Lu FL, Valim C et al (2008) Necrotizing pneumonia is an increasingly detected complication of pneumonia in children. Eur Respir JGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barnes NP, Hull J, Thomson AH (2005) Medical management of parapneumonic pleural disease. Pediatr Pulmonol 39:127–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kurt BA, Winterhalter KM, Connors RH et al (2006) Therapy of parapneumonic effusions in children: video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery versus conventional thoracostomy drainage. Pediatrics 118:e547–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jaffe A, Balfour-Lynn IM (2005) Management of empyema in children. Pediatr Pulmonol 40:148–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vilar J, Domingo ML, Soto C et al (2004) Radiology of bacterial pneumonia. Eur J Radiol 51:102–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Franquet T (2001) Imaging of pneumonia: trends and algorithms. Eur Respir J 18:196–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shoham Y, Dagan R, Givon-Lavi N et al (2005) Community-acquired pneumonia in children: quantifying the burden on patients and their families including decrease in quality of life. Pediatrics 115:1213–1219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barnett ED KJ (2006) Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Nerborn Infant. Elsevier Saunders CompanyGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kuhn J (2004) Caffey’s Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging. Mosby, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Margolis P, Gadomski A (1998) The rational clinical examination. Does this infant have pneumonia? JAMA 279:308–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Okimoto N, Yamato K, Kurihara T et al (2006) Clinical predictors for the detection of community-acquired pneumonia in adults as a guide to ordering chest radiographs. Respirology 11:322–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Palafox M, Guiscafre H, Reyes H et al (2000) Diagnostic value of tachypnoea in pneumonia defined radiologically. Arch Dis Child 82:41–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McIntosh K (2002) Community-acquired pneumonia in children. N Engl J Med 346:429–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCracken GH Jr (2000) Diagnosis and management of pneumonia in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19:924–928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ostapchuk M, Roberts DM, Haddy R (2004) Community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children. Am Fam Phys 70:899–908Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Swingler GH, Hussey GD, Zwarenstein M (1998) Randomised controlled trial of clinical outcome after chest radiograph in ambulatory acute lower-respiratory infection in children. Lancet 351:404–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alario AJ, McCarthy PL, Markowitz R et al (1987) Usefulness of chest radiographs in children with acute lower respiratory tract disease. J Pediatr 111:187–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rigsby CK, Strife JL, Johnson ND et al (2004) Is the frontal radiograph alone sufficient to evaluate for pneumonia in children? Pediatr Radiol 34:379–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lamme T, Nijhout M, Cadman D et al (1986) Value of the lateral radiologic view of the chest in children with acute pulmonary illness. Cmaj 134:353–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Patenaude Y, Blais C, Leduc CP (1995) Reliability of frontal chest x-ray in diagnosing pulmonary opacities in children. Invest Radiol 30:44–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Swingler GH, Zwarenstein M (2005) Chest radiograph in acute respiratory infections in children. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online):CD001268. of subordinate document. Accessed Dec 29, 2008
  27. 27.
    Roback MG, Dreitlein DA (1998) Chest radiograph in the evaluation of first time wheezing episodes: review of current clinical practice and efficacy. Pediatr Emerg Care 14:181–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Perlstein PH, Kotagal UR, Bolling C et al (1999) Evaluation of an evidence-based guideline for bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 104:1334–1341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bachur R, Perry H, Harper MB (1999) Occult pneumonias: empiric chest radiographs in febrile children with leukocytosis. Ann Emerg Med 33:166–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Winer-Muram HT, Rubin SA, Kauffman WM et al (1995) Childhood lymphoma: diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography for severe pulmonary complications. Clin Radiol 50:842–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Winer-Muram HT, Rubin SA, Fletcher BD et al (1994) Childhood leukemia: diagnostic accuracy of bedside chest radiography for severe pulmonary complications. Radiology 193:127–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Winer-Muram HT, Arheart KL, Jennings SG et al (1997) Pulmonary complications in children with hematologic malignancies: accuracy of diagnosis with chest radiography and CT. Radiology 204:643–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mori M, Galvin JR, Barloon TJ et al (1991) Fungal pulmonary infections after bone marrow transplantation: evaluation with radiography and CT. Radiology 178:721–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kuhlman JE, Fishman EK, Burch PA et al (1987) Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in acute leukemia. The contribution of CT to early diagnosis and aggressive management. Chest 92:95–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Katz DS, Leung AN (1999) Radiology of pneumonia. Clin Chest Med 20:549–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Janzen DL, Padley SP, Adler BD et al (1993) Acute pulmonary complications in immunocompromised non-AIDS patients: comparison of diagnostic accuracy of CT and chest radiography. Clin Radiol 47:159–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Donnelly LF, Klosterman LA (1998) The yield of CT of children who have complicated pneumonia and noncontributory chest radiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170:1627–1631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Barloon TJ, Galvin JR, Mori M et al (1991) High-resolution ultrafast chest CT in the clinical management of febrile bone marrow transplant patients with normal or nonspecific chest roentgenograms. Chest 99:928–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Donnelly LF, Klosterman LA (1997) CT appearance of parapneumonic effusions in children: findings are not specific for empyema. AJR Am J Roentgenol 169:179–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tan Kendrick AP, Ling H, Subramaniam R et al (2002) The value of early CT in complicated childhood pneumonia. Pediatr Radiol 32:16–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Donnelly LF (2005) Imaging in immunocompetent children who have pneumonia. Radiol Clin North Am 43:253–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ramnath RR, Heller RM, Ben-Ami T et al (1998) Implications of early sonographic evaluation of parapneumonic effusions in children with pneumonia. Pediatrics 101:68–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kearney SE, Davies CW, Davies RJ et al (2000) Computed tomography and ultrasound in parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Clin Radiol 55:542–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tu CY, Hsu WH, Hsia TC et al (2004) Pleural effusions in febrile medical ICU patients: chest ultrasound study. Chest 126:1274–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Buckingham SC, King MD, Miller ML (2003) Incidence and etiologies of complicated parapneumonic effusions in children, 1996 to 2001. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:499–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mitri RK, Brown SD, Zurakowski D et al (2002) Outcomes of primary image-guided drainage of parapneumonic effusions in children. Pediatrics 110:e37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shoseyov D, Bibi H, Shatzberg G et al (2002) Short-term course and outcome of treatments of pleural empyema in pediatric patients: repeated ultrasound-guided needle thoracocentesis vs chest tube drainage. Chest 121:836–840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cameron R, Davies HR (2008) Intra-pleural fibrinolytic therapy versus conservative management in the treatment of adult parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online):CD002312Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Avansino JR, Goldman B, Sawin RS et al (2005) Primary operative versus nonoperative therapy for pediatric empyema: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 115:1652–1659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Coley BD (2005) Pediatric chest ultrasound. Radiol Clin North Am 43:405–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Coskun A, Koc A, Yikilmaz A (2007) Comparison of MRI with short imaging sequences and CXR for evaluation of pneumonia in pediatric patients. Program and abstracts of the Radiological Society of North America 93rd Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, USAGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Graffelman AW, le Cessie S, Knuistingh Neven A et al (2007) Can history and exam alone reliably predict pneumonia? J Fam Prac 56:465–470Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations