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Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 39, Supplement 1, pp 4–26 | Cite as

Children’s exposure to diagnostic medical radiation and cancer risk: epidemiologic and dosimetric considerations

  • Martha S. LinetEmail author
  • Kwang pyo Kim
  • Preetha Rajaraman
ALARA CONCEPT IN PEDIATRIC IMAGING: ONCOLOGY

Abstract

While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children’s postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies. Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, CT, and fluoroscopically guided procedures.

Keywords

Ionizing radiation Pediatric neoplasms Cancer risks Diagnostic radiography CT 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. The authors thank Annelie Landgren for technical support.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martha S. Linet
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kwang pyo Kim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Preetha Rajaraman
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear EngineeringKyung Hee UniversityYongin-siRepublic of Korea

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