Pediatric Radiology

, 38:766 | Cite as

C1-2 vertebral anomalies in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome

  • Osnat Konen
  • Derek Armstrong
  • Howard Clarke
  • Nancy Padfield
  • Rosanna Weksberg
  • Susan Blaser
Original Article



Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, characteristic facies, high prevalence of skeletal anomalies and learning disability.


To evaluate the prevalence of craniovertebral junction anomalies in children with 22q11DS and compare these findings to those in nonsyndromic children with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI).

Materials and methods

Sequential CT scans performed for presurgical carotid assessment in 76 children (45 children positive for chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and 31 negative for the deletion) with VPI were retrospectively evaluated for assessment of C1-2 anomalies.


C1-2 vertebral anomalies, specifically midline C1 defects, uptilted or upswept posterior elements of C2 and fusions of C2-3, were nearly universal in our cohort of 22q11DS patients with VPI. They were strikingly absent in the majority of non-22q11DS patients with VPI.


C1-2 vertebral anomalies, particularly those listed above, are important radiographic markers for 22q11DS.


22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome 22q11DS CT Vertebral anomaly Atlas 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Osnat Konen
    • 1
  • Derek Armstrong
    • 1
  • Howard Clarke
    • 2
  • Nancy Padfield
    • 1
  • Rosanna Weksberg
    • 3
  • Susan Blaser
    • 1
  1. 1.Diagnostic ImagingThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Plastic SurgeryThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Clinical and Metabolic GeneticsThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada

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