The Relation Between Right Ventricular Function and Left Ventricular Morphology in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: Angiographic and Pathological Studies
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Cases of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) were studied angiographically in 18 patients and pathologically in 22 patients. They were divided into three subgroups according to the morphological features of the left heart: mitral atresia with aortic atresia (MA/AA), mitral stenosis with aortic atresia (MS/AA) and mitral stenosis with severe aortic stenosis (MS/AS). Patients with MS/AA had a significantly lower right ventricular end-diastolic volume index and more hypokinesis of the right ventricular posterior wall than those with MA/AA. MS/AA not only increased the thickness of the left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septum but also increased endocardial thickness compared with MA/AA. Myocardial histology revealed more frequent abnormal findings such as myocardial necrosis, calcification and interstitial fibrosis in the mitral stenosis groups (i.e., MS/AA and MS/AS) than in MA/AA. Right ventricular function appeared to be greatly influenced by left heart structure. The presence of larger left ventricular muscle bulk and frequent myocardial damage seen in MS/AA seems disadvantageous to right ventricular end-diastolic volume and right ventricular wall motion.
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