Comprehensive Functional Echocardiographic Assessment of Transposition of the Great Arteries: From Fetus to Newborn

  • Carin Walter
  • Iris Soveral
  • Joaquim Bartrons
  • María Clara Escobar
  • Juan Manuel Carretero
  • Laura Quirado
  • Olga GómezEmail author
  • Joan Sánchez-de-Toledo
Original Article


To improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum (TGA/IVS) and the cardiac remodeling occurring from fetal to neonatal life, we performed a morphometric and functional echocardiographic assessment in fetuses and newborns. This was a prospective case–control study performed in a tertiary referral center, which included fetuses and newborns with a diagnosis of TGA/IVS between 2011 and 2018. Morphometry and systolic and diastolic function parameters were compared with age and body surface-matched healthy controls. Twenty-one TGA/IVS patients were included during the study period and morphometric and functional echocardiographic data were recorded. TGA/IVS patients showed morphometric and functional changes of increased overall volume and output, predominantly in the aortic component from fetus to newborn, probably due to compensatory mechanisms secondary to brain hypoxia.


Transposition of great arteries Congenital heart disease Echocardiography Pulmonary hypertension 



Research reported in this publication was supported by the Erasmus + Programme of the European Union (Framework Agreement number: 2013-0040). This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Additionally, the research leading to these results has received funding from Hospital Clinic de Barcelona (Ajut Josep Font, Barcelona, Spain), “la Caixa” Foundation (LCF/PR/GN14/10270005, LCF/PR/GN18/10310003), the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), (PI14/00226, PI15/00263, PI15/00130, INT16/00168, PI17/00675) included in the National Plan I+D+I, and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) program “A way to make Europe”, the Cerebra Foundation for the Brain Injured Child (Carmarthen, Wales, UK), and AGAUR 2017 SGR Grant No. 1531. L.G-O has received a Grant from FI AGAUR (2016FI-B01184).

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have non-financial interests.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatric CardiologyHospital Sant Joan de DéuBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Fetal I+D Fetal Medicine Research Center, BCNatal - Barcelona Center for Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine (Hospital Clínic and Hospital Sant Joan de Déu), Institut Clínic de Ginecologia Obstetricia I Neonatologia, Institut D’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer, Universitat de Barcelona, Centre for Biomedical Research On Rare Diseases (CIBER-ER)BarcelonaSpain

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