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Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 40, Issue 7, pp 1359–1366 | Cite as

Phases and Mechanisms of Embryonic Cardiomyocyte Proliferation and Ventricular Wall Morphogenesis

  • Yaacov Barak
  • Myriam Hemberger
  • Henry M. SucovEmail author
Riley Symposium
  • 157 Downloads

Abstract

If viewed as a movie, heart morphogenesis appears to unfold in a continuous and seamless manner. At the mechanistic level, however, a series of discreet and separable processes sequentially underlie heart development. This is evident in examining the expansion of the ventricular wall, which accounts for most of the contractile force of each heartbeat. Ventricular wall expansion is driven by cardiomyocyte proliferation coupled with a morphogenetic program that causes wall thickening rather than lengthening. Although most studies of these processes have focused on heart-intrinsic processes, it is increasingly clear that extracardiac events influence or even direct heart morphogenesis. In this review, we specifically consider mechanisms responsible for coordinating cardiomyocyte proliferation and ventricular wall expansion in mammalian development, relying primarily on studies from mouse development where a wealth of molecular and genetic data have been accumulated.

Keywords

Cardiomyocyte proliferation Epicardium Placenta–heart IGF2 Congenital heart defects 

Notes

Funding

This review was supported in part by The Magee Prize, Grant #MP001, from the Magee-Womens Research Institute and the Richard King Mellon Foundation, given to YB, MH, and HMS, and by NIH Grant HL070123 provided to HMS.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Magee-Womens Research InstituteUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Medical Genetics, Cumming School of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  3. 3.Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, and Division of Cardiology, Department of MedicineMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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