Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 871–877 | Cite as

Correlation Between Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test, Spirometry, and Congenital Heart Disease Severity in Pediatric Population

  • Natalia Morales MestreEmail author
  • Gregory Reychler
  • Christophe Goubau
  • Stéphane Moniotte
Original Article


Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a common chronic disease. This study aimed to verify the relationship between spirometry and exercise capacity in children, considering the CHD severity. All cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and Spirometry from CHD children (5–18 years) were retrospectively reviewed during three years. CPET and Spirometry were analyzed and correlated based on the CHD severity[modified Ross classification (mR)]. Patients (n = 321) were analyzed and subdivided for CHD severity (n = 49, n = 149, n = 80, n = 43, from mR1 to mR4, respectively). The maximal workload (Wmax) in mR1 and mR2 was higher than in patients from mR3 and mR4. Peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) was reduced in mR3 and mR4 compared to mR1 and mR2. Carbon dioxide output was only significantly lower in mR4. Although spirometric parameters were globally in the normal range, forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity were different between subgroups (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Wmax and peakVO2 were weakly or moderately but significantly correlated with spirometry. Respiratory exchange ratio and final blood oxygen saturation were only significantly and weakly correlated to obstruction in small airways. The most severe CHD patients had lower exercise capacity and lung function parameters. A weak to moderate correlation between CPET and spirometry was found. However, the lung function reported in our study was normal, but with a negative correlation with the age. It reinforces the benefits of precocious and regularly spirometry and CPET assessment in CHD children.


Congenital heart disease Spirometry Cardiopulmonary exercise test Pediatrics 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that we have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natalia Morales Mestre
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Gregory Reychler
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christophe Goubau
    • 4
  • Stéphane Moniotte
    • 5
  1. 1.Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique (IREC), Pôle de Pneumologie, ORL & DermatologieUniversité Catholique de LouvainLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Service de Médecine Physique et RéadaptationCliniques Universitaires Saint-LucBruxellesBelgium
  3. 3.Service de PneumologieCliniques Universitaires Saint-LucBruxellesBelgium
  4. 4.Service de Pneumologie PédiatriqueCliniques Universitaires Saint-LucBruxellesBelgium
  5. 5.Service de Cardiologie PédiatriqueCliniques Universitaires Saint-LucBruxellesBelgium

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