The aim of this study was to describe pediatric patients who underwent early postoperative cardiac catheterization after congenital heart surgery, their clinical indications, findings, interventions, and complications in a cardiovascular center. A descriptive retrospective study was performed. All catheterizations performed within 6 weeks after congenital heart surgery between January 2004 and December 2014 were reviewed. We analyzed 101 early postoperative catheterizations. They were performed on median postoperative day five (IQR: 0–39); the median age was 64 days (IQR: 22–240). The most common diagnoses were single ventricle (53%), left heart obstruction (12%), and tetralogy of fallot or pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (11%). Most common indications were persistent cyanosis (53%), low cardiac output (24%), and residual defect on echocardiogram (20%). Most frequent findings during the catheterization were pulmonary artery stenosis (29%), surgical conduit obstruction (12%), and coarctation or hypoplasia of the aorta (11%). Forty-six (45%) procedures involved intervention. Most frequent interventions were pulmonary artery, aorta, and Blalock–Taussig fistula angioplasty with or without stent implantation. There were adverse effects in 11 cases (11%), and 30-day mortality was 28% (28 patients) with the majority unrelated to the catheterization directly. Although early postoperative catheterizations are high-risk procedures, they are currently a very good option to solve acute problems in critically ill patients. This study provides relevant information for a better understanding and approach to this complex group of patients.
Cardiac catheterization Thoracic surgery Heart defects, congenital Child
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All authors: Concept/Design. AME-DdC, MCE-D: Data collection. AME-DdC, MCE-D, EMCA: Data analysis/interpretation. AME-DdC, MCE-D, EMCA: Drafting article. All authors provided a critical revision of the article.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest and received no financial support.
Ethics board approval was obtained and a waiver of consent was granted due to the retrospective nature of the review.
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