To assess the outcomes of neonates prenatally diagnosed with ventricular asymmetry and not operated on within the neonatal period and to determine the risk factors for left heart obstruction occurrence at follow-up. All neonates with prenatal asymmetry of the ventricles, diagnosed from August 1993 to July 2015, not operated on within the neonatal period, were retrospectively included in the study. Left heart echocardiographic measurements at birth and at last follow-up were collected and compared. Left heart anomaly included isthmus and/or aortic valve and/or mitral valve obstruction. There were a total of 34 newborns included in the study. The median follow-up was 2 years. There was no death. Eleven patients were operated on at a median age of three months; seven of them had an obstruction of the left heart (five coarctations of the aorta, one sub-aortic and aortic valve stenosis, and one mitral stenosis). Estimated freedom of left heart surgery was 80% at 6 months and 75% at 10 years. The main risk factor for progression to a left heart anomaly was a hypoplasia of the aortic isthmus (p = 0.0003), while the presence of a left superior vena cava was more frequent in these patients although the difference was not significant. Patients with an aortic isthmus z-score below − 2 at the closure of arterial duct are at risk of later coarctation and therefore follow-up should be extended to at least 3 months. Furthermore, the prenatal ventricular asymmetry does not only identify patients at risk of coarctation but also of other left heart anomalies. This last point should be a better approach with future parents to improve prenatal counseling on a more complex postnatal diagnostic than a simple isolated coarctation.
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