Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 1042–1051 | Cite as

Zinc and Zinc Transporters: Novel Regulators of Ventricular Myocardial Development

  • Wen Lin
  • Deqiang LiEmail author
Original Article


Ventricular myocardial development is a well-orchestrated process involving different cardiac structures, multiple signal pathways, and myriad proteins. Dysregulation of this important developmental event can result in cardiomyopathies, such as left ventricle non-compaction, which affect the pediatric population and the adults. Human and mouse studies have shed light upon the etiology of some cardiomyopathy cases and highlighted the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. However, the regulation of ventricular myocardial development remains incompletely understood. Zinc is an essential trace metal with structural, enzymatic, and signaling function. Perturbation of zinc homeostasis has resulted in developmental and physiological defects including cardiomyopathy. In this review, we summarize several mechanisms by which zinc and zinc transporters can impact the regulation of ventricular myocardial development. Based on our review, we propose that zinc deficiency and mutations of zinc transporters may underlie some cardiomyopathy cases especially those involving ventricular myocardial development defects.


Heart development Trabeculation Compaction Proliferation Differentiation LVNC Signaling pathway ECM Endocardium Myocardium Zinc Zip8 



We wish to thank Dr Nicholas Hand (University of Pennsylvania) for critical reading and insightful feedback in the preparation of this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have conflicts of interest to declare.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Genetics, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.TarrytownUSA
  3. 3.Division of Cardiac Surgery, School of MedicineUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA

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