Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 1–10 | Cite as

Hypertension in Coarctation of the Aorta: Challenges in Diagnosis in Children

  • Trisha V. Vigneswaran
  • Manish D. Sinha
  • Israel Valverde
  • John M. Simpson
  • Marietta CharakidaEmail author
Review Article


Evidence indicates that patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) suffer from increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in later life despite successful repair of COA in childhood. Systolic arterial hypertension is common, presenting in up to one-third of patients, and is regarded as the main driver of premature cardiovascular events in this group of patients. In this review, we discuss the prevalence and pathophysiology of hypertension in children following successful COA repair with no residual arch obstruction. The challenges in accurate blood pressure assessment at this early phase are considered and non-invasive measures of central blood pressure are discussed. Although the pathways for investigations in adults are well defined, we highlight the need to address the issues of cardiovascular surveillance in children and describe techniques which can provide complementary information for cardiovascular assessment in this group of patients such that timely treatment can occur.


Coarctation of the aorta Hypertension Central blood pressure Vasculopathy Arterial stiffness Paediatric 



Coarctation of the aorta


Blood pressure


Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest



  1. 1.
    Bower C, Ramsay JM (1994) Congenital heart disease: a 10 year cohort. J Paediatr Child Health 30(5):414–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gardiner HM, Kovacevic A, van der Heijden LB, Pfeiffer PW, Franklin RC, Gibbs JL, Averiss IE, Larovere JM (2014) Prenatal screening for major congenital heart disease: assessing performance by combining national cardiac audit with maternity data. Heart 100(5):375–382. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2013-304640 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wren C, Reinhardt Z, Khawaja K (2008) Twenty-year trends in diagnosis of life-threatening neonatal cardiovascular malformations. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 93(1):F33–F35. doi: 10.1136/adc.2007.119032 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allan LD, Chita SK, Anderson RH, Fagg N, Crawford DC, Tynan MJ (1988) Coarctation of the aorta in prenatal life: an echocardiographic, anatomical, and functional study. Br Heart J 59(3):356–360PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown KL, Ridout DA, Hoskote A, Verhulst L, Ricci M, Bull C (2006) Delayed diagnosis of congenital heart disease worsens preoperative condition and outcome of surgery in neonates. Heart 92(9):1298–1302. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2005.078097 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sharland GK, Chan KY, Allan LD (1994) Coarctation of the aorta: difficulties in prenatal diagnosis. Br Heart J 71(1):70–75PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Franklin O, Burch M, Manning N, Sleeman K, Gould S, Archer N (2002) Prenatal diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta improves survival and reduces morbidity. Heart 87(1):67–69PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rosenthal E (2005) Coarctation of the aorta from fetus to adult: curable condition or life long disease process? Heart 91(11):1495–1502. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2004.057182 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gillett C, Wong A, Wilson DG, Wolf AR, Martin RP, Kenny D (2011) Underrecognition of elevated blood pressure readings in children after early repair of coarctation of the aorta. Pediatr Cardiol 32(2):202–205. doi: 10.1007/s00246-010-9860-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    NICOR (2016) Surgical outcome of isolated coarctation of the aorta/hypoplastic aortic arch repair in the UK. National Institute of Cardiovascular Outcomes Research, London. Accessed 16 June 2016
  11. 11.
    Cohen M, Fuster V, Steele PM, Driscoll D, McGoon DC (1989) Coarctation of the aorta. Long-term follow-up and prediction of outcome after surgical correction. Circulation 80(4):840–845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Campbell M (1970) Natural history of coarctation of the aorta. Br Heart J 32(5):633–640PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Choudhary P, Canniffe C, Jackson DJ, Tanous D, Walsh K, Celermajer DS (2015) Late outcomes in adults with coarctation of the aorta. Heart 101(15):1190–1195. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2014-307035 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Presbitero P (1987) Long term results (15-30 years) of surgical repair of aortic coarctation. Br Heart J 57(5):462–467PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rinnstrom D, Dellborg M, Thilen U, Sorensson P, Nielsen NE, Christersson C, Johansson B (2016) Hypertension in adults with repaired coarctation of the aorta. Am Heart J 181:10–15. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.07.012 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Canniffe C, Ou P, Walsh K, Bonnet D, Celermajer D (2013) Hypertension after repair of aortic coarctation—a systematic review. Int J Cardiol 167(6):2456–2461. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.09.084 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hager A, Kanz S, Kaemmerer H, Schreiber C, Hess J (2007) Coarctation long-term assessment (COALA): significance of arterial hypertension in a cohort of 404 patients up to 27 years after surgical repair of isolated coarctation of the aorta, even in the absence of restenosis and prosthetic material. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 134(3):738–745. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2007.04.027 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leandro J, Smallhorn JF, Benson L, Musewe N, Balfe JW, Dyck JD, West L, Freedom R (1992) Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and left ventricular mass and function after successful surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta. J Am Coll Cardiol 20(1):197–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    O’Sullivan JJ, Derrick G, Darnell R (2002) Prevalence of hypertension in children after early repair of coarctation of the aorta: a cohort study using casual and 24 hour blood pressure measurement. Heart 88(2):163–166PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vriend JW, Mulder BJ (2005) Exercise-induced hypertension in patients after repair of aortic coarctation. Eur J Appl Physiol 93(5–6):733–734. doi: 10.1007/s00421-004-1304-1 author reply 735–736 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bald M, Neudorf U (2000) Arterial hypertension in children and adolescents after surgical repair of aortic coarctation defined by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Blood Press Monit 5(3):163–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morgan GJ, Lee KJ, Chaturvedi R, Bradley TJ, Mertens L, Benson L (2013) Systemic blood pressure after stent management for arch coarctation implications for clinical care. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 6(2):192–201. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2012.10.009 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eicken A, Pensl U, Sebening W, Hager A, Genz T, Schreiber C, Lang D, Kaemmerer H, Busch R, Hess J (2006) The fate of systemic blood pressure in patients after effectively stented coarctation. Eur Heart J 27(9):1100–1105. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi748 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ou P, Celermajer DS, Mousseaux E, Giron A, Aggoun Y, Szezepanski I, Sidi D, Bonnet D (2007) Vascular remodeling after “successful” repair of coarctation: impact of aortic arch geometry. J Am Coll Cardiol 49(8):883–890. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2006.10.057 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vriend JW, Oosterhof T, Hazekamp MG, Mulder BJ (2005) Aortic arch morphology and hypertension in post-coarctectomy patients. Eur Heart J 26(9):941. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi213 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ou P, Bonnet D, Auriacombe L, Pedroni E, Balleux F, Sidi D, Mousseaux E (2004) Late systemic hypertension and aortic arch geometry after successful repair of coarctation of the aorta. Eur Heart J 25(20):1853–1859. doi: 10.1016/j.ehj.2004.07.021 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bailie MD, Donoso VS, Gonzalez NC (1984) Role of the renin-angiotensin system in hypertension after coarctation of the aorta. J Lab Clin Med 104(4):553–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    de Divitiis M, Pilla C, Kattenhorn M, Zadinello M, Donald A, Leeson P, Wallace S, Redington A, Deanfield JE (2001) Vascular dysfunction after repair of coarctation of the aorta: impact of early surgery. Circulation 104(12 Suppl 1):I165–I170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Parker FB Jr, Farrell B, Streeten DH, Blackman MS, Sondheimer HM, Anderson GH Jr (1980) Hypertensive mechanisms in coarctation of the aorta. Further studies of the renin-angiotensin system. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 80(4):568–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Beekman RH, Katz BP, Moorehead-Steffens C, Rocchini AP (1983) Altered baroreceptor function in children with systolic hypertension after coarctation repair. Am J Cardiol 52(1):112–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Polson JW, McCallion N, Waki H, Thorne G, Tooley MA, Paton JF, Wolf AR (2006) Evidence for cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in neonates with coarctation of the aorta. Circulation 113(24):2844–2850. doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.105.602748 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kenny D, Polson JW, Martin RP, Wilson DG, Caputo M, Cockcroft JR, Paton JF, Wolf AR (2010) Surgical approach for aortic coarctation influences arterial compliance and blood pressure control. Ann Thorac Surg 90(2):600–604. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.04.098 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Celermajer DS (2002) Survivors of coarctation repair: fixed but not cured. Heart 88(2):113–114. doi: 10.1136/heart.88.2.113 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bassareo PP, Marras AR, Manai ME, Mercuro G (2009) The influence of different surgical approaches on arterial rigidity in children after aortic coarctation repair. Pediatr Cardiol 30(4):414–418. doi: 10.1007/s00246-008-9381-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Elliott MJ (1987) Coarctation of the aorta with arch hypoplasia: improvements on a new technique. Ann Thorac Surg 44(3):321–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rajasinghe HA, Reddy VM, van Son JA, Black MD, McElhinney DB, Brook MM, Hanley FL (1996) Coarctation repair using end-to-side anastomosis of descending aorta to proximal aortic arch. Ann Thorac Surg 61(3):840–844. doi: 10.1016/0003-4975(95)01153-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brouwer RM, Erasmus ME, Ebels T, Eijgelaar A (1994) Influence of age on survival, late hypertension, and recoarctation in elective aortic coarctation repair. Including long-term results after elective aortic coarctation repair with a follow-up from 25 to 44 years. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 108(3):525–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Toro-Salazar OH, Steinberger J, Thomas W, Rocchini AP, Carpenter B, Moller JH (2002) Long-term follow-up of patients after coarctation of the aorta repair. Am J Cardiol 89(5):541–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brili S, Dernellis J, Aggeli C, Pitsavos C, Hatzos C, Stefanadis C, Toutouzas P (1998) Aortic elastic properties in patients with repaired coarctation of aorta. Am J Cardiol 82(9):1140–1143, a1110Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vogt M, Kuhn A, Baumgartner D, Baumgartner C, Busch R, Kostolny M, Hess J (2005) Impaired elastic properties of the ascending aorta in newborns before and early after successful coarctation repair: proof of a systemic vascular disease of the prestenotic arteries? Circulation 111(24):3269–3273. doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.104.529792 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ou P, Celermajer DS, Jolivet O, Buyens F, Herment A, Sidi D, Bonnet D, Mousseaux E (2008) Increased central aortic stiffness and left ventricular mass in normotensive young subjects after successful coarctation repair. Am Heart J 155(1):187–193. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.09.008 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lombardi KC, Northrup V, McNamara RL, Sugeng L, Weismann CG (2013) Aortic stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in children following early repair of aortic coarctation. Am J Cardiol 112(11):1828–1833. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.07.052 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Struijk PC, Migchels H, Mathews JV, Stewart PA, Clark EB, de Korte CL, Lotgering FK (2013) Fetal aortic distensibility, compliance and pulse pressure assessment during the second half of pregnancy. Ultrasound Med Biol 39(11):1966–1975. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2013.06.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cuypers J, Leirgul E, Larsen TH, Berg A, Omdal TR, Greve G (2013) Assessment of vascular reactivity in the peripheral and coronary arteries by Cine 3T-magnetic resonance imaging in young normotensive adults after surgery for coarctation of the aorta. Pediatr Cardiol 34(3):661–669. doi: 10.1007/s00246-012-0522-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    de Divitiis M, Pilla C, Kattenhorn M, Donald A, Zadinello M, Wallace S, Redington A, Deanfield J (2003) Ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and conduit artery function late after successful repair of coarctation of the aorta. J Am Coll Cardiol 41(12):2259–2265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gardiner HM, Celermajer DS, Sorensen KE, Georgakopoulos D, Robinson J, Thomas O, Deanfield JE (1994) Arterial reactivity is significantly impaired in normotensive young adults after successful repair of aortic coarctation in childhood. Circulation 89(4):1745–1750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    di Salvo G, Pacileo G, Limongelli G, Verrengia M, Rea A, Santoro G, Gala S, Castaldi B, D’Andrea A, Caso P, Giovanna Russo M, Calabro R (2007) Abnormal regional myocardial deformation properties and increased aortic stiffness in normotensive patients with aortic coarctation despite successful correction: an ABPM, standard echocardiography and strain rate imaging study. Clin Sci 113(5):259–266. doi: 10.1042/cs20070085 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sarkola T, Redington AN, Slorach C, Hui W, Bradley T, Jaeggi E (2011) Assessment of vascular phenotype using a novel very-high-resolution ultrasound technique in adolescents after aortic coarctation repair and/or stent implantation: relationship to central haemodynamics and left ventricular mass. Heart 97(21):1788–1793. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2011.226241 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Vitarelli A, Conde Y, Cimino E, D’Orazio S, Stellato S, Battaglia D, Padella V, Caranci F, Continanza G, Dettori O, Capotosto L (2008) Assessment of ascending aorta distensibility after successful coarctation repair by strain Doppler echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 21(6):729–736. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2007.10.007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ong CM, Canter CE, Gutierrez FR, Sekarski DR, Goldring DR (1992) Increased stiffness and persistent narrowing of the aorta after successful repair of coarctation of the aorta: relationship to left ventricular mass and blood pressure at rest and with exercise. Am Heart J 123(6):1594–1600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Swan L, Kraidly M, Vonder Muhll I, Collins P, Gatzoulis MA (2010) Surveillance of cardiovascular risk in the normotensive patient with repaired aortic coarctation. Int J Cardiol 139(3):283–288. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.10.043 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brili S, Tousoulis D, Antoniades C, Aggeli C, Roubelakis A, Papathanasiu S, Stefanadis C (2005) Evidence of vascular dysfunction in young patients with successfully repaired coarctation of aorta. Atherosclerosis 182(1):97–103. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.01.030 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vriend JW, de Groot E, de Waal TT, Zijta FM, Kastelein JJ, Mulder BJ (2006) Increased carotid and femoral intima-media thickness in patients after repair of aortic coarctation: influence of early repair. Am Heart J 151(1):242–247. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2005.02.013 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Meyer AA, Joharchi MS, Kundt G, Schuff-Werner P, Steinhoff G, Kienast W (2005) Predicting the risk of early atherosclerotic disease development in children after repair of aortic coarctation. Eur Heart J 26(6):617–622. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi037 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Guenthard J, Wyler F (1995) Exercise-induced hypertension in the arms due to impaired arterial reactivity after successful coarctation resection. Am J Cardiol 75(12):814–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Niwa K, Perloff JK, Bhuta SM, Laks H, Drinkwater DC, Child JS, Miner PD (2001) Structural abnormalities of great arterial walls in congenital heart disease: light and electron microscopic analyses. Circulation 103(3):393–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sehested J, Baandrup U, Mikkelsen E (1982) Different reactivity and structure of the prestenotic and poststenotic aorta in human coarctation. Implications for baroreceptor function. Circulation 65(6):1060–1065PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dharmashankar K, Widlansky ME (2010) Vascular endothelial function and hypertension: insights and directions. Curr Hypertens Rep 12(6):448–455. doi: 10.1007/s11906-010-0150-2 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Humphrey JD (2008) Mechanisms of arterial remodeling in hypertension: coupled roles of wall shear and intramural stress. Hypertension 52(2):195–200. doi: 10.1161/hypertensionaha.107.103440 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chamiot Clerc P, Renaud JF, Blacher J, Legrand M, Samuel JL, Levy BI, Sassard J, Safar ME (1999) Collagen I and III and mechanical properties of conduit arteries in rats with genetic hypertension. J Vasc Res 36(2):139–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    McNulty M, Mahmud A, Spiers P, Feely J (2006) Collagen type-I degradation is related to arterial stiffness in hypertensive and normotensive subjects. J Hum Hypertens 20(11):867–873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kuhn A, Baumgartner D, Baumgartner C, Horer J, Schreiber C, Hess J, Vogt M (2009) Impaired elastic properties of the ascending aorta persist within the first 3 years after neonatal coarctation repair. Pediatr Cardiol 30(1):46–51. doi: 10.1007/s00246-008-9280-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, Child JS, Connolly HM, Dearani JA, Del Nido P, Fasules JW, Graham TP Jr, Hijazi ZM, Hunt SA, King ME, Landzberg MJ, Miner PD, Radford MJ, Walsh EP, Webb GD (2008) ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to develop guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease). Circulation 118(23):2395–2451. doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.108.190811 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Baumgartner H, Bonhoeffer P, De Groot NM, de Haan F, Deanfield JE, Galie N, Gatzoulis MA, Gohlke-Baerwolf C, Kaemmerer H, Kilner P, Meijboom F, Mulder BJ, Oechslin E, Oliver JM, Serraf A, Szatmari A, Thaulow E, Vouhe PR, Walma E (2010) ESC Guidelines for the management of grown-up congenital heart disease (new version 2010). Eur Heart J 31(23):2915–2957. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehq249 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lurbe E, Agabiti-Rosei E, Cruickshank JK, Dominiczak A, Erdine S, Hirth A, Invitti C, Litwin M, Mancia G, Pall D, Rascher W, Redon J, Schaefer F, Seeman T, Sinha M, Stabouli S, Webb NJ, Wuhl E, Zanchetti A (2016) 2016 European Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. J Hypertens 34(10):1887–1920. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001039 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Simpson JM, Savis A, Rawlins D, Qureshi S, Sinha MD (2010) Incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in children with kidney disease: impact of method of indexation of left ventricular mass. Eur J Echocardiogr 11(3):271–277. doi: 10.1093/ejechocard/jep211 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Falkner B, Daniels SR, Flynn JT, Gidding S, Green LA et al (2004) The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 114:555–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Flynn JT, Daniels SR, Hayman LL, Maahs DM, McCrindle BW, Mitsnefes M, Zachariah JP, Urbina EM (2014) Update: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 63(5):1116–1135. doi: 10.1161/hyp.0000000000000007 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Urbina E, Alpert B, Flynn J, Hayman L, Harshfield GA, Jacobson M, Mahoney L, McCrindle B, Mietus-Snyder M, Steinberger J, Daniels S (2008) Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents: recommendations for standard assessment: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Youth Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension 52(3):433–451. doi: 10.1161/hypertensionaha.108.190329 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stabouli S, Kotsis V, Zakopoulos N (2007) Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and target organ damage in pediatrics. J Hypertens 25(10):1979–1986. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e3282775992 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Becker MM, Barbosa e Silva O, Moreira IE, Victor EG (2007) Arterial blood pressure in adolescents during exercise stress testing. Arq Bras Cardiol 88:329–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Markham LW, Knecht SK, Daniels SR, Mays WA, Khoury PR, Knilans TK (2004) Development of exercise-induced arm-leg blood pressure gradient and abnormal arterial compliance in patients with repaired coarctation of the aorta. Am J Cardiol 94(9):1200–1202. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.07.097 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hager A, Kanz S, Kaemmerer H, Hess J (2008) Exercise capacity and exercise hypertension after surgical repair of isolated aortic coarctation. Am J Cardiol 101(12):1777–1780. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.02.072 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Madueme PC, Khoury PR, Urbina EM, Kimball TR (2013) Predictors of exaggerated exercise-induced systolic blood pressures in young patients after coarctation repair. Cardiol Young 23(3):416–422. doi: 10.1017/s1047951112001114 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vriend JW, van Montfrans GA, Romkes HH, Vliegen HW, Veen G, Tijssen JG, Mulder BJ (2004) Relation between exercise-induced hypertension and sustained hypertension in adult patients after successful repair of aortic coarctation. J Hypertens 22(3):501–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Luijendijk P, Bouma BJ, Vriend JW, Vliegen HW, Groenink M, Mulder BJ (2011) Usefulness of exercise-induced hypertension as predictor of chronic hypertension in adults after operative therapy for aortic isthmic coarctation in childhood. Am J Cardiol 108(3):435–439. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.03.063 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sinha MD, Reid CJ (2007) Evaluation of blood pressure in children. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 16(6):577–584. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0b013e3282f0d107 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    van der Cammen-van Zijp MH, Ijsselstijn H, Takken T, Willemsen SP, Tibboel D, Stam HJ, van den Berg-Emons RJ (2010) Exercise testing of pre-school children using the Bruce treadmill protocol: new reference values. Eur J Appl Physiol 108(2):393–399. doi: 10.1007/s00421-009-1236-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chirinos JA, Kips JG, Jacobs DR Jr, Brumback L, Duprez DA, Kronmal R, Bluemke DA, Townsend RR, Vermeersch S, Segers P (2012) Arterial wave reflections and incident cardiovascular events and heart failure: MESA (Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). J Am Coll Cardiol 60(21):2170–2177. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.07.054 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Milne L, Keehn L, Guilcher A, Reidy JF, Karunanithy N, Rosenthal E, Qureshi S, Chowienczyk PJ, Sinha MD (2015) Central aortic blood pressure from ultrasound wall-tracking of the carotid artery in children: comparison with invasive measurements and radial tonometry. Hypertension 65(5):1141–1146. doi: 10.1161/hypertensionaha.115.05196 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Brili S, Tousoulis D, Antoniades C, Vasiliadou C, Karali M, Papageorgiou N, Ioakeimidis N, Marinou K, Stefanadi E, Stefanadis C (2008) Effects of ramipril on endothelial function and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in young normotensive subjects with successfully repaired coarctation of aorta: a randomized cross-over study. J Am Coll Cardiol 51(7):742–749. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.10.036 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Di Salvo G, Castaldi B, Gala S, Baldini L, Del Gaizo F, D’Aiello FA, Mormile A, Rea A, Scognamiglio G, Pacileo G, Keating S, Fadel BM, Berrino L, Perna A, Russo MG, Calabro R (2016) Atenolol vs enalapril in young hypertensive patients after successful repair of aortic coarctation. J Hum Hypertens 30(6):363–367. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2015.87 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Brili S, Tousoulis D, Antonopoulos AS, Antoniades C, Hatzis G, Bakogiannis C, Papageorgiou N, Stefanadis C (2012) Effects of atorvastatin on endothelial function and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in young subjects with successfully repaired coarctation of aorta. Heart 98(4):325–329. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2011-300287 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Luijendijk P, Bouma BJ, Vriend JW, Groenink M, Vliegen HW, de Groot E, Pieper PG, van Dijk AP, Sieswerda GT, Konings TC, Stroes ES, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJ (2014) Beneficial effect of high dose statins on the vascular wall in patients with repaired aortic coarctation? Int J Cardiol 176(1):40–47. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.06.016 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Dudenbostel T, Glasser SP (2012) Effects of antihypertensive drugs on arterial stiffness. Cardiol Rev 20(5):259–263. doi: 10.1097/CRD.0b013e31825d0a44 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Moltzer E, Mattace Raso FU, Karamermer Y, Boersma E, Webb GD, Simoons ML, Danser AH, van den Meiracker AH, Roos-Hesselink JW (2010) Comparison of Candesartan versus Metoprolol for treatment of systemic hypertension after repaired aortic coarctation. Am J Cardiol 105(2):217–222. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.08.674 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Barber DC, Valverde I, Shi Y, Brown A, Beerbaum P, Rodney Hose D (2014) Derivation of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity by image registration with a physics-based regularisation term. Int J Numer Methods Biomed Eng 30(1):55–68. doi: 10.1002/cnm.2589 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sotelo J, Urbina J, Valverde I, Tejos C, Irarrazaval P, Hurtado DE, Uribe S (2015) Quantification of wall shear stress using a finite-element method in multidimensional phase-contrast MR data of the thoracic aorta. J Biomech 48(10):1817–1827. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.04.038 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Figueroa CA, Baek S, Taylor CA, Humphrey JD (2009) A computational framework for fluid-solid-growth modeling in cardiovascular simulations. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 198(45–46):3583–3602. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2008.09.013 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trisha V. Vigneswaran
    • 1
    • 2
  • Manish D. Sinha
    • 3
  • Israel Valverde
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • John M. Simpson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marietta Charakida
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Congenital Heart DiseaseEvelina London Children’s Hospital, Guy’s & St Thomas’ HospitalsLondonUK
  2. 2.Division of Imaging Sciences, Kings College London British Heart Foundation CentreNIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Paediatric NephrologyEvelina London Children’s Hospital, Guy’s & St Thomas’ HospitalsLondonUK
  4. 4.Cardiovascular Pathology Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville, IBISVirgen del Rocío University Hospital/CSIC/University of SevilleSevilleSpain

Personalised recommendations