Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 631–640 | Cite as

Advances in Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Boot Camp Training Promotes Fellowship Readiness and Enables Retention of Knowledge

  • Scott R. Ceresnak
  • David M. Axelrod
  • Loren D. Sacks
  • Kara S. Motonaga
  • Emily R. Johnson
  • Catherine D. Krawczeski
Original Article


We previously demonstrated that a pediatric cardiology boot camp can improve knowledge acquisition and decrease anxiety for trainees. We sought to determine if boot camp participants entered fellowship with a knowledge advantage over fellows who did not attend and if there was moderate-term retention of that knowledge. A 2-day training program was provided for incoming pediatric cardiology fellows from eight fellowship programs in April 2016. Hands-on, immersive experiences and simulations were provided in all major areas of pediatric cardiology. Knowledge-based examinations were completed by each participant prior to boot camp (PRE), immediately post-training (POST), and prior to the start of fellowship in June 2016 (F/U). A control group of fellows who did not attend boot camp also completed an examination prior to fellowship (CTRL). Comparisons of scores were made for individual participants and between participants and controls. A total of 16 participants and 16 control subjects were included. Baseline exam scores were similar between participants and controls (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. CTRL 52 ± 10%; p = 0.22). Participants’ knowledge improved with boot camp training (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. POST 70 ± 8%; p < 0.001) and there was excellent moderate-term retention of the information taught at boot camp (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. F/U 71 ± 8%; p < 0.001). Testing done at the beginning of fellowship demonstrated significantly better scores in participants versus controls (F/U 71 ± 8% vs. CTRL 52 ± 10%; p < 0.001). Boot camp participants demonstrated a significant improvement in basic cardiology knowledge after the training program and had excellent moderate-term retention of that knowledge. Participants began fellowship with a larger fund of knowledge than those fellows who did not attend.


Pediatrics Pediatric cardiology Fellowship training Education 



Cardiovascular intensive care unit


Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation


Implantable cardioverter defibrillator


Supraventricular tachycardia


Ventricular assist device



The authors would like to thank the faculty instructors and other contributors from Stanford including Sandra J. Feaster, Michelle N. Otis, Teresa A. Roman-Micek, Alexandra Buchanan, Stephen Roth, Jeffrey Feinstein, Anitra Romfh, Michelle Ogawa, Anne Dubin, Kishor Avasarala, Sharon Chen, Christopher Almond, Seth Hollander, Krista Jett, Christina Litzner, David Peng, Theresa Tacy, Jenna Murray, Paul Shuttleworth, Ozzie Jahadi, Alisa Arunamata, Sowmya Balasubramanian, Doff McEhinney, Holly Bauser-Heaton, Inger Olson, Alaina Kipps, Daniel Murphy, Norman Silverman, Vamsi Yarlagadda, Sushma Reddy, Mithras Maurille, George Yang, Jessica Haley, Renee Rodriguez, William Goodyear, Katsuhide Maeda, and Frank Hanley. The authors would also like to thank the following individuals and corporations for their support, input, and assistance including: Terumo Interventional Systems (Rigo Perea and Jarrod Cox), ZOLL Medical Corporation (Cherlynne Rogers, Brett Harrison, Kristina Oliver), Medtronic, Inc (Jason Daum, Dan Faria, Elodie Pouderoux), Philips Healthcare (Mark Beguhl), St. Jude Medical, Inc (Bryan Coin, Harlie Ferguson, Christine Feller), The Lucile Packard Foundation (Amy Wong), The Vera Moulton Wall Center for Pulmonary Vascular Disease, and Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals (Sanaz Cardoza). Lastly, the authors would like to thank the boot camp attendees, fellows who did not attend the boot camp who served as control subjects, and Fellowship Program Directors for allowing participation of their incoming fellows.


Funding for this endeavor was provided by the generous support of the Division of Pediatric Cardiology at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital, Stanford University, the Stanford Center for Immersive and Simulation-based Learning (CISL) at the Goodman Immersive Learning Center at Stanford University, Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals©, St. Jude Medical©, The Vera Moulton Wall Center for Pulmonary Vascular Disease, and ZOLL©.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.


The authors have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.

Supplementary material

246_2016_1560_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (170 kb)
Boot Camp Participants’ Pre and Post Survey Results. The figure demonstrates a comparison of the pre-training survey (orange) and post-training survey (green) responses. Data are presented as mean with standard error of the mean and comparisons were made statistically via Wilcoxon rank sum. The figures demonstrate responses to questions related to: (A) knowledge. Supplementary material 1 (JPG 170 KB)
246_2016_1560_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (122 kb)
Boot Camp Participants’ Pre and Post Survey Results. The figure demonstrates a comparison of the pre-training survey (orange) and post-training survey (green) responses. Data are presented as mean with standard error of the mean and comparisons were made statistically via Wilcoxon rank sum. The figures demonstrate responses to questions related to: (B) skills. Supplementary material 2 (JPG 122 KB)
246_2016_1560_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (120 kb)
Boot Camp Participants’ Pre and Post Survey Results. The figure demonstrates a comparison of the pre-training survey (orange) and post-training survey (green) responses. Data are presented as mean with standard error of the mean and comparisons were made statistically via Wilcoxon rank sum. The figures demonstrate responses to questions related to: (C) comfort. Supplementary material 3 (JPG 120 KB)
246_2016_1560_MOESM4_ESM.jpg (159 kb)
Post Boot Camp Evaluation of the Course. This figure demonstrates the post-boot camp survey of the benefits of the boot camp training program. The figure shows the percentage of responses to each question on the 5-point Likert scale. Supplementary material 4 (JPG 159 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott R. Ceresnak
    • 1
  • David M. Axelrod
    • 1
  • Loren D. Sacks
    • 1
  • Kara S. Motonaga
    • 1
  • Emily R. Johnson
    • 1
  • Catherine D. Krawczeski
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Lucile Packard Children’s HospitalStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA

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