Changes in Central Aortic Pressure Levels, Wave Components and Determinants Associated with High Peripheral Blood Pressure States in Childhood: Analysis of Hypertensive Phenotype
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The aims were to determine whether children’s high peripheral blood pressure states (HBP) are associated with increased central aortic blood pressure (BP) and to characterize hemodynamic and vascular changes associated with HBP in terms of changes in cardiac output (stroke volume, SV), arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, PWV), peripheral vascular resistances (PVR) and net and relative contributions of reflected waves to the aortic pulse amplitude. We included 154 subjects (mean age 11; range 4–16 years) assigned to one of two groups: normal peripheral BP (NBP, n = 101), defined as systolic and diastolic BP < 90th percentile, or high BP (HBP, n = 53), defined as average systolic and/or diastolic BP levels ≥90th percentile (curves for sex, age and body height). The HBP group included children with hypertensive and pre-hypertensive BP levels. After a first analysis, groups were compared excluding obese and dyslipidemic children. Peripheral and central aortic BP, PWV and pulse wave-derived parameters (augmentation index, forward and backward wave components’ amplitude) were measured using gold-standard techniques, applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor) and oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph). Independent of the presence of dyslipidemia and/or obesity, aortic systolic and pulse BP were higher in HBP than in NBP children. The increase in central BP could not be explained by an increase in the relative contribution of reflections to the aortic pressure wave, higher PVR or by an augmented peripheral reflection coefficient. Instead, the rise in central BP would be explained by an increase in the amplitude of both incident and reflected wave components.
KeywordsArterial stiffness Central aortic blood pressure Pediatrics Hypertension Pulse wave velocity Wave reflection parameters
This work was supported by the Agencia Nacional de Investigación e Innovación (ANII) and Espacio Interdisciplinario (EI) and Comisión Sectorial de Investigación Científica (CSIC-Udelar) of the Republic University, Uruguay. Additionally, this work was supported by extrabudgetary funds generated by CUiiDARTE Centre and Project. Professor Dr. Yanina Zócalo and Professor Dr. Daniel Bia are the Clinical Director and General Director (resp.) of CUiiDARTE Centre and Project.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
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