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Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 36, Issue 6, pp 1129–1134 | Cite as

Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Velocity Time Integral Determination in 570 Healthy Children and in 52 Pediatric Atrial Septal Defect Patients

  • Martin KoestenbergerEmail author
  • Bert Nage
  • William Ravekes
  • Alexander Avian
  • Ante Burmas
  • Gernot Grangl
  • Gerhard Cvirn
  • Andreas Gamillscheg
Original Article

Abstract

Determination of the right ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral (RVOT VTI) is an important part of the noninvasive investigation of pulmonary blood flow in adults; however, age-related pediatric reference data are lacking. We examined growth-related changes of RVOT VTI values in children and the predictive value of RVOT VTI values in identifying enhanced pulmonary blood flow in children with secundum type atrial septal defect (ASD). A prospective study was conducted in a group of 570 healthy children and 52 children with a moderate-sized to large ASD. We determined the effects of age, body length (BL), body weight (BW), and body surface area (BSA) on RVOT VTI values. The predictive value of normal values stratified for age, BW, BL, and BSA was tested in our 52 ASD children. RVOT VTI values ranged from mean 9.7 ± 1.2 cm in neonates to 23.3 ± 2.7 cm in children with 18 years of age and showed a positive correlation with age, BL, BSA, and BW. In our population, RVOT VTI z-scores showed a high specificity for detecting ASD patients (>97 %) with sensitivity up to 71 %. We provide normal ranges and calculated z-scores of pediatric RVOT VTI values. Normal RVOT VTI z-scores might be additional predictors in identifying increased pulmonary blood flow in patients with ASD.

Keywords

Atrial septal defect Pediatric Pulmonary blood flow Right ventricular outflow tract Velocity time integral Z-Scores 

Notes

Conflict of interest

All authors state that there are no financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence our work to disclose.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Koestenberger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bert Nage
    • 1
  • William Ravekes
    • 2
  • Alexander Avian
    • 3
  • Ante Burmas
    • 1
  • Gernot Grangl
    • 1
  • Gerhard Cvirn
    • 4
  • Andreas Gamillscheg
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of PediatricsMedical University GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric CardiologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and DocumentationMedical University GrazGrazAustria
  4. 4.Centre of Physiological Medicine, Institute of Physiological ChemistryMedical University GrazGrazAustria

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