Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 851–861 | Cite as

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics/Fluid–Structure Interaction Pilot Study to Detect Early Vascular Changes in Pediatric Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

  • Margaret M. SamynEmail author
  • Ronak Dholakia
  • Hongfeng Wang
  • Jennifer Co-Vu
  • Ke Yan
  • Michael E. Widlansky
  • John F. LaDisa
  • Pippa Simpson
  • Ramin Alemzadeh
Original Article


We hypothesized that pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes have cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detectable differences in thoracic aortic wall properties and hemodynamics leading to significant local differences in indices of wall shear stress, when compared with age-matched control subjects without diabetes. Pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes were recruited from Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin and compared with controls. All underwent morning CMR scanning, 4-limb blood pressure, brachial artery reactivity testing, and venipuncture. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics modeling with fluid–structure interaction, based on CMR data, determined regional time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI). Twenty type 1 diabetic subjects, median age 15.8 years (11.6–18.4) and 8 controls 15.4 years (10.3–18.2) were similar except for higher glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and triglycerides for type 1 diabetic subjects. Lower flow-mediated dilation was seen for those with type 1 diabetes (6.5) versus controls (7.8), p = 0.036. For type 1 diabetic subjects, the aorta had more regions with high TAWSS when compared to controls. OSI maps appeared similar. Flow-mediated dilation positively correlated with age at diabetes diagnosis (r = 0.468, p = 0.038) and hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.472, p = 0.036), but did not correlate with aortic distensibility, TAWSS, or OSI. TAWSS did not correlate with any clinical parameter for either group. CMR shows regional differences in aortic wall properties for young diabetic patients. Some local differences in wall shear stress indices were also observed, but a longitudinal study is now warranted.


Diabetes Magnetic resonance imaging Pediatrics 



The authors would like to acknowledge Stacy Leibham (Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin) for her assistance with CMR scanning, David J. Quam, MS (Marquette University) for writing scripts for CFD quantification, and Mara Koffarnus, MA (Medical College of Wisconsin) for help in preparing this manuscript for submission. This research was supported by a Children’s Research Institute Pilot Innovative Research grant.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Standards

This study has been approved by the Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin Institutional Review Board and performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. All study subjects and/or their parents, gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. If the child was between the ages of 14 and 17, assent was also obtained.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret M. Samyn
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ronak Dholakia
    • 2
  • Hongfeng Wang
    • 3
  • Jennifer Co-Vu
    • 4
  • Ke Yan
    • 1
  • Michael E. Widlansky
    • 5
  • John F. LaDisa
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
  • Pippa Simpson
    • 1
  • Ramin Alemzadeh
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.Stony Brook University Medical CenterStony BrookUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical EngineeringMarquette UniversityMilwaukeeUSA
  4. 4.Congenital Heart Center and Department of PediatricsUniversity of Florida College of MedicineGainesvilleUSA
  5. 5.Department of MedicineMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  6. 6.Biotechnology and Bioengineering CenterMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  7. 7.Division of Pediatric EndocrinologyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

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