Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 888–892 | Cite as

Risk for Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults after Atrial Switch Repairs for d-Looped Transposition of the Great Arteries

  • Timothy Cotts
  • Kevin R. Smith
  • Jimmy Lu
  • Adam L. Dorfman
  • Mark D. Norris
Original Article


Although sleep-disordered breathing has been extensively studied in patients with left-ventricular dysfunction, little is known of its prevalence in adults with congenital heart disease. Patients with d-looped transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) who have undergone atrial switch procedures often develop progressive heart failure. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of patients at risk for sleep-disordered breathing in adults with d-TGA and atrial switch procedures compared with a control population. Thirty-two patients with d-TGA (66 % males, median age 31) were compared with 32 healthy controls. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were documented. The snoring, tiredness during daytime, observed apnea, and high blood pressure (STOP) questionnaire was used to identify subjects at risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). There was no difference in baseline demographics between subjects and controls. For the STOP questionnaire, 14 subjects with d-TGA had scores predictive of OSA compared with three in the control group (44 vs. 9 %, p = 0.0038). There was no difference in functional status between d-TGA patients with or without OSA. There is a greater prevalence of risk for sleep disordered breathing in adults with d-TGA compared with controls. Further prospective investigation with sleep studies will be valuable to confirm these findings.


Sleep apnea Congenital heart disease Transposition of the great arteries Mustard procedure 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy Cotts
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kevin R. Smith
    • 3
  • Jimmy Lu
    • 2
  • Adam L. Dorfman
    • 2
  • Mark D. Norris
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Division of Cardiology, Department of PediatricsUniversity of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Stritch School of MedicineLoyola UniversityMaywoodUSA

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