Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 307–314 | Cite as

Associations of Cardiac Structure with Obesity, Blood Pressure, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in African-American Adolescents

  • Samuel S. Gidding
  • Robert A. Palermo
  • Stephanie S. DeLoach
  • Scott W. Keith
  • Bonita Falkner
Original Article


To determine if obesity, blood pressure (BP), markers of inflammation, and insulin resistance are associated with cardiac structure in African-American adolescents, a cross–sectional study was performed on a cohort oversampled for high BP and obesity. Measurements included the following: anthropometrics, BP, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) to assess insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and plasma adipokines (adiponectin, interleukin-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1). Echocardiogram measurements were left-ventricular mass index (LVMI) (g/m2.7), LV relative wall thickness (LVRWT), left-atrial diameter index [LADI (mm/m)], and LV diastolic time intervals. LADI (r 2 = 0.25) was associated with body mass index (BMI) systolic BP (SBP) and female sex. LVMI (r 2 = 0.35) variation was associated with BMI SBP, heart rate, age, and male sex. LVRWT (r 2 = 0.05) was associated with HOMA. Tissue diastolic intervals were not associated with any risk factor. Inflammatory markers and adipokines were associated with BMI but were not independently associated with any echocardiographic measures. In African-American adolescents, BMI and SBP, but not inflammatory markers or adipokines, are important correlates of LA size and LVM.


Obesity Inflammation Adolescents Left atrium Left-ventricular mass 



Left-ventricular mass (index)


Left atrium (diameter index)


Blood pressure


Body mass index

TNF-α (R)

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (receptor)




Plasminogen activator


High sensitivity C-reactive protein


LV diastolic time intervals


Heart rate


Homeostasis model assessment


Ambulatroy blood pressure monitoring


Relative wall thickness



This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health/ National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Grant no. HL092030.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel S. Gidding
    • 1
  • Robert A. Palermo
    • 1
  • Stephanie S. DeLoach
    • 2
  • Scott W. Keith
    • 3
  • Bonita Falkner
    • 4
  1. 1.Nemours Cardiac CenterAlfred I. duPont Hospital for ChildrenWilmingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental TherapeuticsThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Division of NephrologyThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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