The Spectrum of Congenital Heart Disease and Outcomes After Surgical Repair Among Children With Turner Syndrome: A Single-Center Review
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Turner syndrome (TS), a genetic abnormality affecting 1 in 2,500 people, is commonly associated with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, the surgical outcomes for TS patients have not been well described. This study reviewed the spectrum of CHD in TS at the authors’ center. The authors report outcomes after coarctation of the aorta (CoA) repair or staged palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and then compare the surgical outcomes with those of non-TS patients undergoing like repair. This retrospective chart review was conducted at the Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin from 1999 to 2011. Of the 173 patients with TS, 77 (44.5 %) were found to have CHD. Left-sided obstructive lesions were the most common. However, the spectrum of CHD was wide and included systemic and pulmonary venous abnormalities as well as abnormalities of the coronary arteries. In the comparative analysis of CoA repair, the TS patients younger than 60 days had longer aortic cross-clamp times (24 vs. 16 min; p = 0.001) and longer hospital stays (12 vs. 6 days; p ≤ 0.0001) than the non-TS patients. At the follow-up assessment after 8.8 ± 9.1 years, 17 % of the TS patients had hypertension, but no patient had required reintervention, and no deaths had occurred. Finally, three of the four TS patients with HLHS died within the first year. The spectrum of CHD within TS is wide and not limited to bicuspid aortic valve or CoA. Additionally, patients with TS undergoing CoA repair may have a more challenging early postoperative course but experience outcomes similar to those of non-TS patients. Finally, patients who have TS combined with HLHS remain a challenging population with generally poor survival.
KeywordsCoarctation Congenital heart disease Hypoplastic left heart Outcomes Turner syndrome
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