Pediatric Cardiology

, 30:682 | Cite as

Noninvasive Evaluation of Left Ventricular Noncompaction: What’s New in 2009?

  • Benjamin W. Eidem
Riley Symposium


Significant interest in clinical practice as well as the medical literature exists regarding the presentation and outcome of children and adults with left-ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). The mainstay in the diagnosis of LVNC has been the anatomic definition of the ventricular myocardium by two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging. Although helpful, this approach lacks diagnostic precision and fails to evaluate the functional impact of this abnormal myocardial architecture on global and regional myocardial performance. This review will focus on the use of novel echocardiographic modalities of tissue Doppler, strain, and strain rate imaging to identify and characterize abnormalities of regional myocardial function in patients with LVNC.


Noncompaction Strain Tissue Doppler 


  1. 1.
    Alam M, Wardell J, Andersson E, Samad BA, Nordlander R (1999) Characteristics of mitral and tricuspid annular velocities determined by pulsed Doppler tissue imaging in healthy subjects. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 12:618–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aranda JM, Weston MW, Puleo JA, Fontanet HL (1998) Effect of loading conditions on myocardial relaxation velocities determined by tissue Doppler imaging in heart transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transpl 17:693–697Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carlhäll C, Wigström L, Heiberg E, Karlsson M, Bolger AF, Nylander E (2004) Contribution of mitral annular excursion and shape dynamics to total left ventricular volume change. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 287:H1836–H1841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D’hooge J, Heimdal A, Jamal F, Kukulski T, Bijnens B, Rademakers F, Hatle L, Suetens P, Sutherland GR (2000) Regional strain and strain rate measurements by cardiac ultrasound: principles, implementation and limitations. Eur J Echocardiogr 1:154–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Derumeaux G, Ovize M, Loufoua J, Pontier G, André-Fouet X, Cribier A (2000) Assessment of nonuniformity of transmural myocardial velocities by color-coded tissue Doppler imaging characterization of normal, ischemia, and stunned myocardium. Circulation 101:1390–1395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Di Salvo G, Eyskens B, Claus P, D’hooge J, Bijnens B, Suys B, De Wolf D, Gewillig M, Sutherland GR, Mertens L (2004) Late post-repair ventricular function in patients with abnormal left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery: an ultrasound based regional strain and strain rate study. Am J Cardiol 93:506–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diwan A, McCulloch M, Lawrie GM, Reardon MJ, Nagueh SF (2005) Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressures in patients with mitral valve disease. Circulation 111:3281–3389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dong SJ, Hees PS, Huang WM, Buffer SA Jr, Weiss JL, Shapiro EP (1999) Independent effects of preload, afterload, and contractility on left ventricular torsion. Am J Physiol 277:H1053–H1060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Donovan CL, Armstrong WF, Bach DS (1995) Quantitative Doppler tissue imaging of the left ventricular myocardium: validation in normal subjects. Am Heart J 130:100–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eidem BW, McMahon CJ, Cohen RR, Wu J, Finkelshteyn I, Kovalchin JP, Ayres NA, Bezold LI, O’Brian Smith E, Pignatelli RH (2004) Impact of cardiac growth on Doppler tissue imaging velocities: a study in healthy children. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 17:212–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eyskens B, Ganame J, Taylor AM (2005) Reduced right ventricular deformation in children with severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot correction is associated with reduced exercise capacity. Circulation 112(Suppl [abstract]):17Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eyskens B, Weidemann F, Kowalski M, Bogaert J, Dymarkowski S, Bijnens B, Gewillig M, Sutherland G, Mertens L (2004) The assessment of regional and left ventricular function after a Senning procedure: an ultrasonic strain rate and strain study. Cardiol Young 14:255–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Farias CA, Rodriquez L, Garcia MJ, Sun JP, Klein AL, Thomas JD (1999) Assessment of diastolic function by tissue Doppler echocardiography: comparison with standard transmitral and pulmonary venous flow. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 12:609–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Firstenberg MS, Greenberg NL, Main ML, Drinko JK, Odabashian JA, Thomas JD, Garcia MJ (2001) Determinants of diastolic myocardial tissue Doppler velocities: influences of relaxation and preload. J Appl Physiol 90:299–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fleming AD, Xia X, McDicken WN, Sutherland GR, Fenn L (1994) Myocardial velocity gradients detected by Doppler imaging. Br J Radiol 67:679–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frommelt PC, Ballweg JA, Whitstone BN, Frommelt MA (2002) Usefulness of Doppler tissue imaging analysis of tricuspid annular motion for determination of right ventricular function in normal infants and children. Am J Cardiol 89:610–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Galiuto L, Ignone G, DeMaria AN (1998) Contraction and relaxation velocities of the normal left ventricle using pulsed-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 81:609–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ganame J, Claus P, Eyskens B, Uyttebroeck A, Renard M, D’hooge J, Gewillig M, Bijnens B, Sutherland GR, Mertens L (2007) Acute cardiac functional and morphological changes after anthracycline infusions in children. Am J Cardiol 99:974–977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garcia MJ, Rodriguez L, Ares M, Griffin BP, Klein AL, Stewart WJ, Thomas JD (1996) Myocardial wall velocity assessment by pulsed Doppler tissue imaging: characteristic findings in normal subjects. Am Heart J 132:648–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Garcia MJ, Rodriguez L, Ares M, Griffin BP, Thomas JD, Klein AL (1996) Differentiation of constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy: assessment of left ventricular diastolic velocities in longitudinal axis by Doppler tissue imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 27:108–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Garcia MJ, Thomas JD (1999) Tissue Doppler to assess diastolic left ventricular function. Echocardiogrphy 16:501–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Giatrakos N, Kinali M, Stephens D, Dawson D, Muntoni F, Nihoyannopoulos P (2006) Cardiac tissue velocities and strain rate in the early detection of myocardial dysfunction of asymptomatic boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: relation to clinical outcome. Heart 92:840–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Greenberg NL, Firstenberg MS, Castro PL, Main M, Travaglini A, Odabashian JA, Drinko JK, Rodriguez LL, Thomas JD, Garcia MJ (2002) Doppler-derived myocardial systolic strain rate is a strong index of left ventricular contractility. Circulation 105:99–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gulati VK, Katz WE, Follansbee WP, Gorcsan J 3rd (1996) Mitral annular descent velocity by tissue Doppler echocardiography as an index of global left ventricular function. Am J Cardiol 77:979–984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ha JW, Oh JK, Ommen SR, Ling LH, Tajik AJ (2002) Diagnostic value of mitral annular velocity for constrictive pericarditis in the absence of respiratory variation in mitral inflow velocity. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 15:1468–1471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ha JW, Ommen SR, Tajik AJ, Barnes ME, Ammash NM, Gertz MA, Seward JB, Oh JK (2004) Differentiation of constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy using mitral annular velocity by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 94:316–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hansen DE, Daughters GT II, Alderman EL, Ingels NB, Stinson EB, Miller DC (1991) Effect of volume loading, pressure loading, and inotropic stimulation on left ventricular torsion in humans. Circulation 83:1315–1326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harada K, Orino T, Yasuoka K, Tamura M, Takada G (2000) Tissue Doppler imaging of the left and right ventricles in normal children. Tohoku J Exp Med 191:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Harada K, Toyono M, Yamamoto F (2004) Assessment of right ventricular function during exercise with quantitative Doppler tissue imaging in children late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 17:863–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Heimdal A, Stoylen A, Torp H, Skjaerpe T (1998) Real-time strain rate imaging of the left ventricle by ultrasound. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 11:1013–1019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Helle-Valle T, Crosby J, Edvardsen T, Lyseggen E, Amundsen BH, Smith HJ, Rosen BD, Lima JA, Torp H, Ihlen H, Smiseth OA (2005) New noninvasive method for assessment of left ventricular rotation: speckle tracking echocardiography. Circulation 112:3149–3156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hung KC, Huang HL, Chu CM, Chen CC, Hsieh IC, Chang ST, Fang JT, Wen MS (2004) Evaluating preload dependence of a novel Doppler application in assessment of left ventricular diastolic function during hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 43:1040–1046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Isaaz K, Munoz del Romeral L, Lee E, Schiller NB (1993) Quantitation of the motion of the cardiac base in normal subjects by Doppler echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 6:166–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Isaaz K, Thompson A, Ethevenot G, Cloez JL, Brembilla B, Pernot C (1989) Doppler echocardiographic measurement of low velocity motion of the left ventricular posterior wall. Am J Cardiol 64:66–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jacques DC, Pinsky MR, Severyn D, Gorcsan J (2004) Influence of alterations in loading on mitral annular velocity by tissue Doppler echocardiography and its associated ability to predict filling pressures. Chest 126:1910–1918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jenni R, Oechslin E, Schneider J, Attenhofer Jost C, Kaufmann PA (2001) Echocardiographic and pathoanatomical characteristics of isolated left ventricular non-compaction: a step towards classification as a distinct cardiomyopathy. Heart 86:666–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kapusta L, Thijssen JM, Cuypers MH, Peer PG, Daniels O (2000) Assessment of myocardial velocities in healthy children using tissue Doppler imaging. Ultrasound Med Biol 26:229–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kim HK, Sohn DW, Lee SE, Choi SY, Park JS, Kim YJ, Oh BH, Park YB, Choi YS (2007) Assessment of left ventricular rotation and torsion with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 20:45–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Korinek J, Wang J, Sengupta PP, Miyazaki C, Kjaergaard J, McMahon E, Abraham TP, Belohlavek M (2005) Two-dimensional strain—a Doppler independent ultrasound method for quantitation of regional deformation: validation in vitro and in vivo. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 18:1247–1253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Langeland S, D’hooge J, Wouters PF (2005) Experimental validation of a new ultrasound method for the simultaneous assessment of radial and longitudinal myocardial deformation independent of insonation angle. Circulation 112:2157–2162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Maron BJ, Towbin JA, Thiene G, Antzelevitch C, Corrado D, Arnett D, Moss AJ, Seidman CE, Young JB (2006) Contemporary definitions and classification of the cardiomyopathies: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 113:1807–1816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    McDicken WM, Sutherland GR, Moran CM, Gordon LN (1992) Colour Doppler velocity imaging of the myocardium. Ultrasound Med Biol 18:651–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McMahon CJ, Pignatelli RH, Nagueh SF, Lee VV, Vaughn W, Valdes SO, Kovalchin JP, Jefferies JL, Dreyer WJ, Denfield SW, Clunie S, Towbin JA, Eidem BW (2007) Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy in children: characterization of clinical status using tissue Doppler-derived indices of left ventricular diastolic relaxation. Heart 93:676–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mori K, Hayabuchi Y, Kuroda Y, Nii M, Manabe T (2000) Left ventricular wall motion velocities in healthy children measured by pulsed wave Doppler tissue echocardiography: normal values and relation to age and heart rate. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 13:1002–1011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Müller S, Bartel T, Koopman J, Pandian NG, Erbel R, Pachinger O (2003) Tissue Doppler analysis is hindered in abnormal wall motion and changes in afterload. Int J Cardiol 90:81–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nagueh SF, Kopelen HA, Quinones MA (1996) Assessment of left ventricular filling pressures by Doppler in the presence of atrial fibrillation. Circulation 94:2138–2145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nagueh SF, Lakkis NM, Middleton KJ, Spencer WH III, Zoghbi WA, Quinones MA (1999) Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressures in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 99:254–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nagueh SF, Middleton KJ, Kopelen HA, Zoghbi WA, Quiñones MA (1997) Doppler tissue imaging. A noninvasive technique for evaluation of left ventricular relaxation and estimation of filling pressures. J Am Coll Cardiol 30:1527–1533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nagueh SF, Mikati I, Kopelen HA, Middleton KJ, Quiñones MA, Zoghbi WA (1998) Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressure in sinus tachycardia: a new application of tissue Doppler imaging. Circulation 98:1644–1650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nagueh SF, Sun H, Kopelen HA, Middleton KJ, Khoury DS (2001) Hemodynamic determinants of the mitral annular diastolic velocities by tissue Doppler. J Am Coll Cardiol 37:278–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nii M, Mori K, Kuroda Y (2002) Quantification of the myocardial velocity gradient and myocardial wall thickening velocity in healthy children: a new indicator of regional myocardial wall motion. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 15:624–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Notomi Y, Lysyansky P, Setser RM, Shiota T, Popović ZB, Martin-Miklovic MG, Weaver JA, Oryszak SJ, Greenberg NL, White RD, Thomas JD (2005) Measurement of ventricular torsion by two-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:2034–2041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Notomi Y, Setser RM, Shiota T, Martin-Miklovic MG, Weaver JA, Popović ZB, Yamada H, Greenberg NL, White RD, Thomas JD (2005) Assessment of left ventricular torsional deformation by Doppler tissue imaging: validation study with tagged magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 111:1141–1147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Oechslin EN, Attenhofer Jost CH, Rojas JR, Kaufmann PA, Jenni R (2000) Long-term follow-up of 34 adults with isolated left ventricular non-compaction: a distinct cardiomyopathy with poor prognosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 36:493–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Oki T, Fukuda K, Tabata T, Mishiro Y, Yamada H, Abe M, Onose Y, Wakatsuki T, Iuchi A, Ito S (1999) Effect of an acute increase in afterload on left ventricular regional wall motion velocity in healthy subjects. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 12:476–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Oki T, Tabata T, Mishiro Y, Yamada H, Abe M, Onose Y, Wakatsuki T, Iuchi A, Ito S (1998) Pulsed tissue Doppler imaging of left ventricular systolic and diastolic wall motion velocities to evaluate differences between long and short axes in healthy subjects. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 12:308–313Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Oki T, Tabata T, Yamada H, Abe M, Onose Y, Wakatsuki T, Fujinaga H, Sakabe K, Ikata J, Nishikado A, Iuchi A, Ito S (1998) Right and left ventricular wall motion velocities as diagnostic indicators of constrictive pericarditis. Am J Cardiol 81:465–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pai RG, Kanwaljit SG (1998) Amplitudes, durations, and timings of apically directed left ventricular myocardial velocities. I: their normal pattern and coupling to ventricular filling and ejection. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 11:105–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pellerin D, Sharma R, Relliott P, Veyrat C (2003) Tissue Doppler, strain and strain rate echocardiography for the assessment of left and right systolic ventricular function. Heart 89:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pignatelli RH, McMahon CJ, Dreyer WJ, Denfield SW, Price J, Belmont JW, Craigen WJ, Wu J, El Said H, Bezold LI, Clunie S, Fernbach S, Bowles NE, Towbin JA (2003) Clinical characterization of left ventricular noncompaction in children: a relatively common form of cardiomyopathy. Circulation 108:2672–2678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Price DJA, Wallbridge DR, Stewart MJ (2000) Tissue Doppler imaging: current and potential clinical implications. Heart 84(Suppl 2):ii11–ii18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rivas-Gotz C, Khoury DS, Manolios M, Rao L, Kopelen HA, Nagueh SF (2003) Time interval between onset of mitral inflow and onset of early diastolic velocity by tissue Doppler—a novel index of left ventricular relaxation: experimental studies and clinical application. J Am Coll Cardiol 42:1463–1470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rodriguez L, Garcia MJ, Ares M (1996) Assessment of mitral annular dynamics during diastole by Doppler tissue imaging: comparison with mitral inflow in subjects without heart disease and in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Am Heart J 131:982–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ruan Q, Rao L, Middleton KJ, Khoury DS, Nagueh SF (2006) Assessment of left ventricular diastolic function by early diastolic mitral annulus peak acceleration rate: experimental studies and clinical application. J Appl Physiol 100:679–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rychik J, Tian ZY (1996) Quantitative assessment of myocardial tissue velocities in normal children with tissue Doppler imaging. Am J Cardiol 77:1254–1257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Simmons LA, Weidemann F, Sutherland GR, D’hooge J, Bijnens B, Sergeant P, Wouters PF (2002) Doppler tissue, strain and strain rate imaging with transesophageal echocardiography in the operating room: a feasibility study. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 15:768–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Skulstad H, Andersen K, Edvardsen T, Rein KA, Tønnessen TI, Hol PK, Fosse E, Ihlen H (2004) Detection of ischemia and new insight into left ventricular physiology by strain Doppler and tissue velocity imaging: assessment during coronary bypass operation of the beating heart. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 17:1225–1233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sohn DW, Chai IH, Lee DJ, Kim HC, Kim HS, Oh BH, Lee MM, Park YB, Choi YS, Seo JD, Lee YW (1997) Assessment of mitral annulus velocity by Doppler tissue imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. J Am Coll Cardiol 30:474–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sonnenblick EH, Parmley WW, Urschel CW, Brutsaert DL (1970) Ventricular function: evaluation of myocardial contractility in health and disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 27:449–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sundereswaran L, Nagueh SF, Vardan S, Middleton KJ, Zoghbi WA, Quiñones MA, Torre-Amione G (1998) Estimation of left and right ventricular filling pressures after heart transplantation by tissue Doppler imaging. Am J Cardiol 82:352–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sutherland GR, Di Salvo G, Claus P, D’Hooge J, Bijnens B (2004) Strain and strain rate imaging: a new clinical approach to quantifying regional myocardial function. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 17:788–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sutherland GR, Stewart MJ, Groundstroem KW, Moran CM, Fleming A, Guell-Peris FJ, Riemersma RA, Fenn LN, Fox KA, McDicken WN (1994) Color Doppler myocardial imaging: a new technique for the assessment of myocardial function. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 7:441–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Swaminathan S, Ferrer PL, Wolff GS, Gomez-Marin O, Rusconi PG (2003) Usefulness of tissue Doppler echocardiography for evaluating ventricular function in children without heart disease. Am J Cardiol 91:570–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Toyono M, Harada K, Tamura M, Yamamoto F, Takada G (2004) Myocardial acceleration during isovolumic contraction as a new index of right ventricular contractile function and its relation to pulmonary regurgitation in patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 17:332–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Uematsu M, Miyatake K, Tanaka N, Matsuda H, Sano A, Yamazaki N, Hirama M, Yamagishi M (1995) Myocardial velocity gradient as a new indicator of regional left ventricular contraction: detection by two-dimensional tissue Doppler imaging technique. J Am Coll Cardiol 26:217–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Urheim S, Edvardsen T, Torp H, Angelsen B, Smiseth OA (2000) Myocardial strain by Doppler echocardiography validation of a new method to quantify regional myocardial function. Circulation 102:1158–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Vicario ML, Caso P, Martiniello AR, Fontanella L, Petretta M, Sardu C, Petretta MP, Bonaduce D (2006) Effects of volume loading on strain rate and tissue Doppler velocity imaging in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. J Cardiovasc Med 7:852–858Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Weidemann F, Eyskens B, Jamal F, Mertens L, Kowalski M, D’Hooge J, Bijnens B, Gewillig M, Rademakers F, Hatle L, Sutherland GR (2002) Quantification of regional left and right ventricular radial and longitudinal function in healthy children using ultrasound-based strain and strain imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 15:20–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Weidemann F, Eyskens B, Mertens L, Dommke C, Kowalski M, Simmons L, Claus P, Bijnens B, Gewillig M, Hatle L, Sutherland GR (2002) Quantification of regional right and left ventricular function by ultrasonic strain rate and strain indices after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Cardiol 90:133–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Weidemann F, Jamal F, Sutherland GR, Claus P, Kowalski M, Hatle L, De Scheerder I, Bijnens B, Rademakers FE (2002) Myocardial function defined by strain rate and strain during alterations in inotropic states and heart rate. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 283:H792–H799PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Divisions of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiovascular DiseasesMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations