Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 251–259 | Cite as

Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Guide Pediatric Endovascular Procedures

  • A.N. Raval
  • R.J. Lederman


Although x-ray fluoroscopy (XRF) has guided diagnostic and therapeutic transcatheter procedures for decades, certain limitations still exist. XRF still visualizes tissue poorly and relies on projection of shadows that do not convey depth information. Adjunctive echocardiography overcomes some of these limitations but still suffers suboptimal or unreliable imaging windows. Furthermore, ionizing radiation exposure in children imparts a cancer risk. An interventional platform using real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may offer superior image guidance without radiation. Although there are many remaining challenges, but real-time MRI has the potential to revolutionize transcatheter therapeutics.

Key words

Magnetic resonance imaging Interventional Pediatric Congenital 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiovascular Branch, Division of Intramural ResearchNational Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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