Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 2–28 | Cite as

Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support in Children and Young Adults: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, Ventricular Assist Devices, and Long-Term Support Devices

Article

References

  1. 1.
    Chang, AC, Atz, A, Burke, RP,  et al. 1995Milrinone: systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic effects in neonates after cardiac surgeryCrit Care Med2319071914Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hoffman, TM, Wernovsky, G, Atz, AM,  et al. 2002Prophylactic intravenous use of milrinone after cardiac operation in pediatrics (PRIMACORP) studyAm Heart1431521Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Booker, PD 2002Pharmacological support for children with myocardial dysfunctionPediatr Anesth12525Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beghetti, M, Rimensberger, PC 2000Mechanical circulatory support in pediatric patientsIntensive Care Med26350352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Duncan, BW 2002Mechanical circulatory support for infants and children with cardiac diseaseAnn Thorac Surg7316701677CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Throckmorton, AL, Allaire, PE, Gutgesell, HP,  et al. 2002Pediatric circulatory support systemsASAIO J48216221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kanter, KR, Pennington, DG, Weber, TR,  et al. 1987Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for postoperative cardiac support in childrenJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg932735Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Redmond, CR, Graves, ED, Falterman, KW,  et al. 1987Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory and cardiac failure in infants and childrenJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg93199204Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weinhaus, L, Canter, C, Noetzel, M,  et al. 1989Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for circulatory support after repair of congenital heart defectsAnn Thorac Surg48206212Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rogers, AJ, Trento, A, Siewers, RD,  et al. 1989Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for postoperative cardiogenic shock in childrenAnn Thorac Surg47903906Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anderson, HL, Attorri, RJ, Custer, JR,  et al. 1990Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pediatric cardiopulmonary failureJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg9910111021Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Klein, MD, Shaheen, KW, Whittlesey, GC,  et al. 1990Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for circulatory support of children after repair of congenital heart diseaseJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg100498505Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ferrazzi, P, Glauber, M, DiDomenico, A,  et al. 1991Assisted circulation for myocardial recovery after repair of congenital heart diseaseEur J Cardiothorac Surg5419423Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Delius, RE, Bove, EL, Meliones, JN,  et al. 1992Use of extracorporeal life support in patients with congenital heart diseaseCrit Care Med2012161222Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raithel, SC, Pennington, DG, Boegner, E,  et al. 1992Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children after cardiac surgeryCirculation 86.305310Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ziomek, S, Harrell, JE, Fasules, JW,  et al. 1992Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac failure after congenital heart operationAnn Thorac Surg54861868Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Meliones, JN, Custer, JR, Snedecor, S,  et al. 1991Extracorporeal life support for cardiac assist in pediatric patientsReview of ELSO registry data. Circulation84168172Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dalton, HJ, Siewers, RD, Fuhrman, BP,  et al. 1993Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac rescue in children with severe myocardial dysfunctionCrit Care Med2110201028Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pennington, DG, Swartz, MT 1993Circulatory support in infants and childrenAnn Thorac Surg55233237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nido, PJ 1996Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac support in childrenAnn thorac surg61336339Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Walters, HL, Hakimi, M, Rice, MD,  et al. 1995Pediatric cardiac surgical ECMO: multivariate analysis of risk factors for hospital deathAnn Thorac Surg60329336Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Montgomery, VL, Strotman, JM, Ross, MP 2000Impact of muitiple organ system dysfunction and nosocomial infections on survival of children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after heart surgeryCrit Care Med28526531Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mehta, U, Laks, H, Sadeghi, A,  et al. 2000Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac support in pediatric patientsAm Surg66879886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aharon, AS, Drinkwater, DC, Churchwell, KB,  et al. 2001Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children after repair of congenital cardiac lesionsAnn Thorac Surg7220952101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (2001, July) ECMO Registry Report, Extracorporeal Life Support Organization, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chang, AC, Hanley, FL, Wernovsky, G, Wessel, DL 1998Pediatric Cardiac Intensive CareWilliams & WilkinsBaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chang, AC 2000Pediatric cardiac intensive care: current state of the art and beyond the millenniumCurr Opin Pediatr12238246Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pennington, DG, Swartz, MT 1993Circulatory support in infants and childrenAnn Thorac Surg55233237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bartlett, RH, Gazzaniga, AB, Huxtable, RF,  et al. 1977Extracorporeal circulation in neonatal respiratory failureJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg74826833Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim, ES, Stolar, CJ 2000ECMO in the newbornAm J Perinatol17345356Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Anderson, HL, Attorri, RJ, Custer, JR,  et al. 1990Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pediatric cardiopulmonary failureJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg9910111019Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Anderson, HL, Delius, RE, Sinard, JM,  et al. 1992Early experience with adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the modern eraAnn Thorac Surg53553563Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thalmann, M, Trampitsch, E, Haberfellner, N,  et al. 2001Resuscitation in near drowning with extracorporeal membrane oxygenationAnn Thorac Surg72607608Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Trant, CA, Casey, JR, Hansell, D,  et al. 1996Successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the treatment of acute chest syndrome in a child with severe sickle cell anemia.ASAIO J42:236239Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hill, JD, Leval, MR, Fallat, RJ,  et al. 1972Acute respiratory insufficiency: treatment with prolonged extracorporeal oxygenationJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg64551562Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Soeter, JR, Mamiya, RT, Sprague, AY,  et al. 1973Prolonged extracorporeal oxygenation for cardiorespiratory failure after tetralogy correctionJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg66214218Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bartlett, RH, Gazzaniga, AB, Fong, SW,  et al. 1977Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support for cardiopulmonary failureExperience in 28 cases. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg73375386Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    JB Zwischenberger, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rais-Bahrami, K, Short, BL 2000The current status of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenationSemin Perinatol24406417Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kihara, S, Kawai, A, Endo, M,  et al. 2002Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and left ventricular assist device: a case of double mechanical bridgeHeart Vessels16164166Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang, SS, Ko, WJ, Chen, YS,  et al. 2001Mechanical bridge with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ventricular assist device to heart transplantationArtif Organs25599602Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Muehrcke, DD, McCarthy, PM, Stewart, RW,  et al. 1996Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for postcardiotomy cardiogenic shockAnn Thorac Surg61684691Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Borowski, A, Korb, H 1997Experience with uni (LAVD) and biventricular (ECMO) circulatory support in postcardiotomy pediatric patientsInt J Artif Organs20695700Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Noon, GP, Lafuente, JA, Irwin, S 1999Acute and temporary ventricular support with BioMedicus centrifugal pumpAnn Thorac Surg68650654Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Golding, LR, Harasaki, H, Loop, FD,  et al. 1978Use of a centrifugal pump for temporary left ventricular assist systemTrans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs249397Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Moat, NE, Pawade, A, Lewis, BC,  et al. 1990Circulatory support in infants with post-cardiopulmonary bypass left ventricular dysfunction using a left ventricular assist deviceEur J Cardiothorac Surg4649652Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Scheinin, SA, Radovancevic, B, Parnis, SM,  et al. 1994Mechanical circulatory support in childrenJ Cardiol Thorac Surg8537540Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chang, AC, Hanley, FL, Weindling, SN,  et al. 1992Left heart support with a ventricular assist device in an infant with acute myocarditisCrit Care Med20712715Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Karl, TR, Sano, S, Horton, S,  et al. 1991Centrifugal pump left heart assist in pediatric cardiac operationsJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg102624630Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Thuys, CA, Mullaly, RJ, Horton, SB,  et al. 1998Centrifugal ventricular assist in children under 6 kgEur J Cardiothorac Surg13130134Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nido, PJ, Duncan, BW, Mayer, JE,Jr,  et al. 1999Left ventricular assist device improves survival in children with left ventricular dysfunction after repair of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary arteryAnn Thorac Surg67169172Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Perko, MJ, Sander-Jensen, K, Dehnke, C,  et al. 1995BioMedicus ventricular assist for postcardiotomy heart failure: evaluation of univentricular assistanceArtif Organs19777781Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Morgan, IS, Codispoti, M, Sanger, K,  et al. 1998Superiority of centrifugal pump over roller pump in pediatric cardiac surgery: prospective randomised trialEur J Cardiothorac Surg13526532Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jacobs, JP, Ojito, JW, McConaghey, TW,  et al. 2000Rapid cardiopulmonary support for children with complex congenital heart diseaseAnn Thorac Surg70742750Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marelli, D, Laks, H, Meehan, DA,  et al. 1999Minimally invasive mechanical cardiac support without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children awaiting heart transplantationAnn Thorac Surg6823202323Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ratcliffe, MB, Bavaria, JE, Wenger, RK,  et al. 1991Left ventricular mechanics of ejecting, postischemic hearts during left ventricular circulatory assistanceJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg101245255Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Eugene, J, Ott, RA, McColgan, SJ,  et al. 1986Vented cardiac assistance: ECMO vs left heart bypass for acute left ventricular failureASAIO Trans32538541Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Williams, MR, Quaegebeur, JM, Hsu, DT,  et al. 1996Biventricular assist device as a bridge to transplantation in a pediatric patientAnn Thorac Surg62578580Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pantalos, GM, Minich, LL, Tani, LY,  et al. 1999Estimation of timing errors for the intraaortic balloon pump use in pediatric patientsASAIO J45166171Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Veasy, LG, Blalock, RC, Orth, JL,  et al. 1983Intraaortic balloon pumping in infants and childrenCirculation6810951100Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pollock, JC, Charlton, MC, Williams, WG,  et al. 1980Intraaortic balloon pumping in childrenAnn Thorac Surg29522528Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Park, JK, Hsu, DT, Gersony, WM 1993Intraarotic balloon pump management of refractory congestive heart failure in childrenPediatr Cardiol141922Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pozzi, M, Santoro, G, Makundan, S 1998Intraaortic balloon pump after treatment of anomalous origin of left coronary arteryAnn Thorac Surg65555557Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Akomea-Agyin C, Kejriwal NK, Franks P, et al. (1999) Intraaortic balloon pumping in children. Ann Thorac Surg 67:1415–1520Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nido, PJ, Swan, PR, Benson, LN,  et al. 1998Successful use of intraaortic balloon pumping in a 2-kilogram infantAnn Thorac Surg46574576Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pinkney, KA, Minich, LL, Tani, LY,  et al. 2002Current results with intraaortic balloon pumping in infants and childrenAnn Thorac Surg73887891Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Spence, PA, Peniston, CM, Mihic, N,  et al. 1986A rational approach to the selection of an assist device for the pailing right ventricleAnn Thorac Surg41606608Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Scheinin, SA, Radovancevic, B, Parnis, SM,  et al. 1994Mechanical circulatory support in childrenEur J Cardiothorac Surg8537540Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Meyns B, Dens JO, Sergeant P, et al. (2002, December) First clinical experience with the Impella micropump in patients with cardiogenic shock In: Proceedings of the Third Mechanical Circulatory Support Meeting: Today’s Facts and Future Trends. Bad Oeyenhausen GermanyGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hata, M, Shiono, M, Orime, Y,  et al. 2000Strategy of circulatory support with percutaneous cardiopulmonary supportArtif Organs24636639Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Milliken, JC, Laks, H, George, B 1986Use of venous assist device after repair of complex lesions of the right heartJ Am Coll Cardiol8922929Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Smedira, NG, Blackstone, EH 2001Postcardiotomy mechanical support: risk factors and outcomesAnn Thorac Surg71S60S66Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    El-Banayosy, A, Minami, K, Arusoglu, L,  et al. 1997Long-term mechanical circulatory supportThorac Cardiovasc Surg45127180Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goldstein, DJ, Oz, MC, Rose, EA 1998Implantable left ventricular assist devicesN Engl J Med33915221533Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    DeBakey, ME 1971Left ventricular bypass for cardiac assistance: clinical experienceAm J Cardiol27310Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rose, EA, Gelijns, AC, Moskowitz, AJ,  et al. 2001Long-term mechanical left ventricular assistance for end-stage heart failureN Engl J Med34514351443CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Matsuda, H, Taenaka, Y, Ohkubo, N,  et al. 1988Use of paracorporeal pneumatic ventricular assist device for postoperative cardiogenic shock in two children with complex cardiac lesionsArtif Organs12423430Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Joharchi, MS, Neiser, U, Lenschow, U,  et al. 2002Thoractec left ventricular assist device for bridging to recovery in pulminant acute myocarditisAnn Thorac Surg74234235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Reinhartz, O, Keith, FM, El-Banayosy, A,  et al. 2001Multicenter experience with the thoratec ventricular assist device in children and adolescentsJ Heart Lung Transplant20439448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Reinhartz, O, Stiller, B, Eilers, R,  et al. 2002Current clinical status of pulsatile pediatric circulatory supportASAIO J48455459CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Copeland, JG, Arabia, FA, Smith, RG 2001Bridge to transplantation with a Thoratec left ventricular assist device in a 17-kg childAnn Thorac Surg7110031004Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Farrar, DJ, Hill, JD, Pennington, DG,  et al. 1997Preoperative and postoperative comparison of patients with univentricular and biventricular support with the Thoratec ventricular assist device as a bridge to transplantationJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg113202209Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    McBride, LR, Naunheim, KS, Fiore, AC,  et al. 1999Clinical experience with 111 Thoratec ventricular assist devicesAnn Thorac Surg6712331239Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Reinhartz, O, Keith, FM, El-Banayosy, A,  et al. 2001Multicenter experience with the Thoratec ventricular assist device in children and adolescentsJ Heart Lung Transplant20439448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Loebe, M, Hennig, E, Muller, J,  et al. 1997Long-term mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation, for recovery from cardiomyopathy, and for permanent replacementEur J Cardiothorac Surg11S18S24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ishino, K, Loebe, M, Uhlemann, F,  et al. 1997Circulatory support with paracorporeal pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD) in infants and childrenEur J Cardiothorac Surg11965972CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hetzer, R, Loebe, M, Potapov, EV,  et al. 2000Circulatory support with pneumatic paracorporeal ventricular assist device in infants and childrenAnn Thorac Surg6614981506Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    M Loebe, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Stiller, B, Dhanert, I, Weng, YG,  et al. 1999Children may survive severe myocarditis with prolonged use of biventricular assist devicesHeart82237240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Herwig, V, Severin, M, Waldenberger, FR,  et al. 1997Medos/HIA-assist system: first experiences with mechanical circulatory assist in infants and childrenInt J Artif Organs20692694Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Konertz, W, Hotz, H, Schneider, M,  et al. 1997Clinical experience with the MEDOS HIA-VAD system in infants and children: a preliminary reportAnn Thorac Surg6311381144Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Busch, U, Waldenberger, FR, Redlin, M,  et al. 1999Successful treatment of postoperative right ventricular heart failure with the HA-Medos assist system in a two– year-old girlPediatr Cardiol20161163Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Reul, H 1999The MEDOS/HIA system: development, results, perspectivesThorac Cardiovasc47311315Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shum-Tim, D, Duncan, BW, Hraska, V,  et al. 1997Evaluation of a pulsatile pediatric ventricular assist device in an acute right heart failure modelAnn Thorac Surg6413741380Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Weyand, M, Keceicioglu, D, Kehl, HG,  et al. 1998Neonatal mechanical bridging to total orthotopic heart transplantationAnn Thorac Surg66519522Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stewart, AS, Gorman, RC, Pocchetino, A,  et al. 2002Left ventricular assist device for right side assistance in patients with transpositionAnn Thorac Surg74912914Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Takano, H, Nakatani, T 1996Ventricular assist systems: experience in Japan with Tayobo pump and Zeon pumpAnn Thorac Surg61317322Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Daily, BB, Pettitt, TW, Sutera, SP,  et al. 1996Pierce–Donachy pediatric VAD: progress in developmentAnn Thorac Surg61437434Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Pennington, DG, McBride, LR, Miller, LW,  et al. 1994Eleven years’ experience with the Pierce–Donachy ventricular assist deviceJ Heart Lung Transplant13803810Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Gray, LA, Ganzel, BL, Mavroudis, C,  et al. 1989The Pierce–Donachy ventricular assist device as a bridge to cardiac transplantationAnn Thorac Surg48222227Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Long, JW 2001Advanced mechanical circulatory support with the HeartMate left ventricular assist device in the year 2000Ann Thorac Surg71S176S182Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    OH Frazier, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Frazier, OH, Myers, TJ, Gregoric, ID,  et al. 2002Initial clinical experience with the Jarvik 2000 implantable axial flow left ventricular assist systemCirculation10528552860Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    GP Noon, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    GP Noon, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    GP Noon, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rothenburger, M, Wilhelm, MJ, Hammel, D,  et al. 2002Treatment of thrombus formation associated with the MicroMed DeBakey VAD can be treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activatorCirculation106I-189I192Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kaplon, RJ, Oz, MC, Kwiatkowski, PA,  et al. 1996Miniature axial flow pump for ventricular assistance in children and small adultsJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg1111318Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kaplon, RJ, Oz, MC, Kwiatkowski, PA,  et al. 1996Miniature axial flow pump for ventricular assistance in children and small adultsJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg1111318Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mueller J, Weng YG, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kawaguchi, A, Muneretto, C, Pavie, A,  et al. 1989Hemodynamic characteristics of the Jarvik-7 total artifical heartCirculation80III-152III157Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    El-Banayosy, A, Fey, O, Sarnowski, P,  et al. 2001Midterm follow-up of patients discharged from hospital under left ventricular assistJ Heart Lung Transplant205358Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Copeland, JG, Tsau, PH, Arabia, FA,  et al. 1995Correlation of clinical embolic events with coagulability in a patient with a total artificial heartJ Heart Lung Transplant14990998Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Zareba, KM 2002The artificial heart—past, present, and futureMed Sci Monit8RA72RA77Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gray LA (2002, December) Abiocor clinical trials. In: Proceedings of the Third Mechanical Circulatory Support Meeting: Today’s Facts and Future Trends. Bad Oeyenhausen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Jassawalla JS (2002, December) Optimized HeartSaver VAD. In: Proceedings of the Third Mechanical Circulatory Support Meeting: Today’s Facts and Future Trends. Bad Oeyenhausen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Long JW (2002, December) HeartQuest next generation VAD. In: Proceedings of the Third Mechanical Circulatory Support Meeting: Today’s Facts and Future Trends. Bad Oeyenhausen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Golding L (2002, December) The CorAide left ventricular assist system. In: Proceedings of the Third Mechanical Circulatory Support Meeting: Today’s Facts and Future Trends. Bad Oeyenhausen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Farrar DJ, Butler K, Loree HM (2002, December) HeartMate II and III. In: Proceedings of the Third Mechanical Circulatory Support Meeting: Today’s Facts and Future Trends. Bad Oeyenhausen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nojiri C (2002, December) DuraHeart LVAS—third generation centrifugal pump with a magnetically levitated impeller on three planes. In: Proceedings of the Third Mechanical Circulatory Support Meeting: Today’s. Facts and Future Trends. Bad Oeyenhausen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Shore, S, Nelson, DP, Pearl, JM,  et al. 2001Usefulness of corticosteroid therapy in decreasing epinephrine requirements in critically ill infants with congenital heart diseaseAm J Cardiol88591594Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Burch, GE 1966On resting the human heartAm Heart J71422428Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kahwaji, I, Ramaciotti, C, Nikaidoh, H,  et al. 2003Images in cardiovascular medicineEchocardiographic diagnosis of anomalous drainage of the superior vena cava into the left atrium. Circulation10715601561Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Charpie, JR, Dekeon, MK, Goldberg, CS,  et al. 2000Serial blood lactate measurements predict early outcome after neonatal repair or palliation for complex congential heart diseaseJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg1207380Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Langley, SM, Sheppard, SB, Tsang, VT,  et al. 1998When is extracorporeal life support worthwhile following repair of congenital heart disease in children?Eur J Cardiothorac Surg13520525Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Wernovsky, G, Chang, AC, Wessel, DL,  et al. 2000

    Intensive care

    Emmannouilides, GCRiemenschneider, TAAlien, HD eds. Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and AdolescentsWilliamsWilkins, Baltimore.
    Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Trittenwein, G, Pansi, H, Graf, B,  et al. 1999Proposed entry criteria for postoperative cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after pediatric open heart surgeryArtif Organs2310101014Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hakami, M, Walters, HL, Pinsky, WW,  et al. 1994Delayed sternal closure after neonatal cardiac operationsJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg107925983Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Alexi-Meskishvili, V, Hetzer, R, Weng, Y,  et al. 1994Successful extracorporeal circulatory support after aortic reimplantation of anomalous left coronary arteryEur J Cardiothorac Surg8533536Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nido, PJ, Duncan, BW, Mayer, JE,Jr,  et al. 1999Left ventricular assist device improves survival in children with left ventricular dysfunction after repair of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary arteryAnn Thorac Surg67169172Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Mee, RB, Harada, Y 1991Retraining of the left ventricle with a left ventricular assist device (BioMedicus) after the arterial switch operationJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg101171173Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mitchell, MB, Campbell, DN, Bielefeld, MR,  et al. 2000Utility of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for early graft failure following heart transplantation in infancyJ Heart Lung Transplant19834839Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Grundl, PD, Miller, SA, Nido, PJ,  et al. 1993Successful treatment of myocarditis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenationCrit Care Med21302304Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Duncan, BW, Bohn, DJ, Atz, AM,  et al. 2001Mechanical circulatory support for the treatment of children with acute fulminant myocarditisJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg122440448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Acker, MA 2001Mechanical circulatory support for patients with acute-pulminant myocarditisAnn Thorac Surg71S73S76Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lee, KJ, McCrindle, BW, Bohn, DJ,  et al. 1999Clinical outcomes of acute myocarditis in childhoodHeart82226232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Bohn, D 2001Extracorporeal life support in heart and lung transplantationSemin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu494102Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Levi, D, Marelli, D, Plunkett, M,  et al. 2002Use of assist devices and ECMO to bridge pediatric patients with cardiomyopathy to transplantationJ Heart Lung Transplant21760770CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Nido, PJ, Armitage, JM, Fricker, FJ,  et al. 1994Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support as a bridge to pediatric heart transplantationCirculation90II66II69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hopper, AO, Pageau, J, Job, L,  et al. 1999Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for perioperative support in neonatal and pediatric cardiac transplantationArtif Organs2310061009Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ishino, K, Weng, Y, Alexi-Meskishvili, V,  et al. 1996Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to cardiac transplantation in childrenArtif Organs20728782Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Farrar, DJ, Hill, JD 1991Univentricular and biventricular thoratec VAD support as a bridge to transplantationAnn Thorac Surg55276282Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Warnecke, H, Berdjis, F, Hennig, E,  et al. 1991Mechanical left ventricular support as abridge to cardiac transplantation in childhoodEur J Cardiothorac Surg5330333Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hetzer, R, Loebe, M, Weng, Y,  et al. 1999Pusatile pediatric ventricular assist device: currently results for bridge to transplantationSemin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Anu2157176Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Delius, RE, Zwischenberger, JB, Cilley, R,  et al. 1990Prolonged extracorporeal life support of pediatric and adolescent cardiac transplant patientsAnn Thorac Surg50791795Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Gajarski, RJ, Mosca, RS, Ohye, RG,  et al. 2003Use of extracorporeal life support as a bridge to pediatric cardiac transplantationJ Heart Lung Transplant222834Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Morrow, WR, Naftel, D, Chinnock, R,  et al. 1997Outcome of listing for heart transplantation in infants younger than six Months: predictors of death and interval to transplantationThe Pediatric Heart Transplantation Study Group. J Heart Lung Transplant1612551266Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Nido, PJ, Dalton, HJ, Thompson, AE,  et al. 1993Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac rescue in children with severe myocardial dysfunctionCrit Care Med2110201028Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Kurose, M, Okamoto, K, Sato, T,  et al. 1993Extracorporeal life support for patients undergoing prolonged external cardiac massageResuscitation253540Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Chen, VS, Chao, A, Yu, HY,  et al. 2003Analysis and results of prolonged resuscitation in cardiac arrest patients rescued by extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Am Coll Cardiol41197203Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Parra, DA, Totapally, BR, Zahn, E,  et al. 2000Outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unitCrit Care Med2832963300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Dembitsky, WP, Moreno-Cabral, RJ, Adamson, RM,  et al. 1993Emergency resuscitation using portable extracorporeal membrane oxygenationAnn Thorac Surg55304309Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Duncan, BW, Ibrahim, AE, Hraska, V,  et al. 1998Use of rapid deployment extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the resuscitation of pediatric patients with heart disease after cardiac arrestJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg116305311Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Salzer-Muhar, UE, Marx, M, Wimmer, M 1999Pediatric cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in congenital heart disease: the cardiologist’s viewArtif Organs239951000Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hunkeler, NM, Canter, CE, Donze, A,  et al. 1992Extracorporeal life support in cyanotic congenital heart disease before cardiovascular operationAm J Cardiol69790793Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    McKay, VJ, Stewart, DL, Robinson, TW,  et al. 1997Preoperative versus postoperative extracorporeal life support in neonatal cardiac patientsPerfusion12179186Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Lupinetti, FM, Kulik, TJ, Beekman, RH,  et al. 1993Correction of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection in infancyJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg106880885Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Stewart, DL, Mendoza, JC, Winston, S,  et al. 1996Use of extracorporeal life support in total anomalous pulmonary venous drainageJ Perinatol16186190Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Dudell, GG, Evans, ML, Krous, HF,  et al. 1993Common pulmonary vein atresia: the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenationPediatrics91403410Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Plowden, JS, Kimball, TR, Bensky, A,  et al. 1991The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in critically ill neonates with Ebstein’s anomalyAm Heart J121619622Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    McDonnell, BE, Raff, GW, Gaynor, JW,  et al. 1999Outcome after repair of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valveAnn Thorac Surg6713911396Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Adolph, V, Heaton, J, Steiner, R,  et al. 1991Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for nonneonatal respiratory failureJ Pediatr Surg26326380Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Khongphatthanayothin, A, Wong, P, Samara, Y,  et al. 1999Impact of respiratory syncytial virus infection on surgery for congenital heart disease: postoperative course and outcomeCrit Care Med2719741981Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Moler, FW, Palmisano, JM, Green, TP,  et al. 1993Predictors of outcome of severe respiratory syncytial virus-associated respiratory failure treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Pediatr234652Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hibbs, A, Evans, JR, Gerdes, M,  et al. 2001Outcome of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia who receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapyJ Pediatr Surg3614791484Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Brogan, TV, Finn, LS, Pyskaty, DJ,  et al. 2002Plastic bronchitis in children: a case series and review of the medical literaturePediatr Pulmonol34482487Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Boigner, H, Trittenwein, G, Marx, M,  et al. 1999Pulmonary failure after Norwood procedure: indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation? A case reportArtif Organs2310361037Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Dhillon, R, Pearson, GA, Firmin, RK,  et al. 1995Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the treatment of critical pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart diseaseEur J Cardiothorac Surg9553556Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Chang, AC, Wernovsky, G, Kulik, T,  et al. 1991Management of the neonate with transposition of the great arteries and persistent pulmonary hypertensionAm J Cardiol6812531255Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Cullen, M, Splittgerber, F, Sweezer, W,  et al. 1986Pulmonary hypertension postventricular septal defect repair treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Pediatr Surg21675677Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Goldman, AP, Delius, RE, Deanfield, JE,  et al. 1996Nitric oxide might reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane support in children with critical postoperative pulmonary hypertensionAnn Thorac Surg62750755Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Saito, A, Miyamura, H, Kanazawa, H,  et al. 1993Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe heart failure after Fontan operationAnn Thorac Surg55153155Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Thomas, JA, Raroque, S, Scott, WA,  et al. 1997Successful treatment of severe dysrhythmias in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections: two cases and a literature reviewCrit Care Med25880886Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Walker, GM, McLeod, K, Brown, KL,  et al. 2003Extracorporeal life support as a treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in infantsPediatr Crit Care Med45254Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Azzam, FJ, Fiore, AC 1998Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardiaCan J Anesth45898902Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Marino, BS, Wernovsky, G, Rychik, J,  et al. 1999Early results of the Ross procedure in simple and complex left heart diseaseCirculation100II62II66Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Chen, RJ, Ko, WJ, Lin, FY 2002Successful rescue of sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation after coronary artery bypass crafting by extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Formos Med Assoc101283286Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Cohen, MI, Gaynor, JW, Ramesh, V,  et al. 1999Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for patients with refractory ventricular arrhythmiasJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg118961963Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Tecklenburg, FW, Thomas, NJ, Webb, SA,  et al. 1997Pediatric ECMO for severe quinidine cardiotoxicityPediatr Emerg Care13111113Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Butler, TJ, Yoder, BA, Seib, R,  et al. 1994ECMO for left ventricular assist in a newborn with critical aortic stenosisPediatr Cardiol153840Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Ward, CJ, Mullins, CE, Barron, LJ,  et al. 1995Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to maintain oxygenation during pediatric interventional cardiac catheterizationAm Heart J130619620Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Carmichael, TB, Walsh, EP, Roth, SJ 2002Anticipatory use of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for a high-risk interventional high-risk cardiac procedureRespir Care4710021006Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ungerleider R, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Goldman, AP, Macrae, DJ, Tasker, RC,  et al. 1996Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to definitive tracheal surgery in childrenJ Pediatr128386388Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Whyte, RI, Deeb, GM, McCurry, KR,  et al. 1994Extracorporeal life support after heart or lung transplantationAnn Thorac Surg58754758Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Wilson, BJ, Heiman, HS, Butler, TJ,  et al. 2002A 16-year neonatal/pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation transport experiencePediatrics109189193Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Saker, DM, Walsh-Sukys, M, Spector, M,  et al. 1997Cardiac recovery and survival after neonatal myocardial infarctionPediatr Cardiol18139142Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Goodwin, DA, Lally, KP, Null, DM,Jr 1993Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for cardiac dysfunction from tricyclic antidepressant overdoseCrit Care Med21625627Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Ryan, CA, Perreault, T, Johnston-Hodgson, A,  et al. 1994Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and cardiac malformationsJ Pediatr Surg29878881Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Goldman, AP, Kerr, SJ, Butt, W,  et al. 1997Extracorporeal support for intractable cardiorespiratory failure due to meningococcal diseaseLancet349466469Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Kolovos, NS, Schuerer, DJ, Moler, FW,  et al. 2002Extracorporeal life support for pulmonary hemorrhage in children: a case seriesCrit Care Med30577580Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Meyer, DM, Jessen, ME 1997Results of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with sepsisThe extracorporeal Life Support Organization. Ann Thorac Surg63756764Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Pizarro, C, Davis, DA, Healy, RM,  et al. 2001There a role for extracorporeal life support after stage I Norwood?Eur J Cardiothorac Surg19294301Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Paris, JJ, Schreiber, MD, Statter, M,  et al. 1993Beyond autonomy–physicians’ refusal to use life-prolonging extracorporeal membrane oxygenationN Engl J Med329354357Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Fuhrman, BP, Hernan, LJ, Rotta, AT,  et al. 1999Pathophysiology of cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenationArtif Organs23966969Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Nido, PJ, Armitage, JM, Fricker, FJ,  et al. 1994Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support as a bridge to pediatric Heart transplantationCirculation90II66II69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Koenig, PR, Ralston, MA, Kimball, TR,  et al. 1993Balloon atrial septostomy for left ventricular decompression in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for myocardial failureJ pediatr122S95S99Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Koenig, PR, Ralston, MA, Kimball, TR,  et al. 1993Balloon atrial septostomy for left ventricular decompression in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for myocardial failureJ Pediatr122S95S99Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Seib, PM, Faulkner, SC, Erickson, CC,  et al. 1999Blade and balloon atrial septostomy for left heart decompression in patients with severe ventricular dysfunction on extracorporeal membrane oxygenationCatheter Cardiovasc Interv46179186Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Edmunds, LH 1982Pulseless cardiopulmonary bypassJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg84800804Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Bavaria, JE, Ratcliff, MB, Gupta, KB,  et al. 1998Changes in left ventricular systolic wall stress during biventricular circulatory assistanceAnn Thorac Surg45526582Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Martin, GR, Short, BL 1988Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac performance in infants on prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenationAm J Cardiol62929934Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Selll, LL, Cullen, ML, Lerner, GR,  et al. 1987Hypertension during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: cause, effect, and managementSurgery102724730Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Martin, GR, Chauvin, L, Short, BL 1991Effects of hydralazine on cardiac performance in infants receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Pediatr118944948Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Martin, GR, Short, BL, Abbott, C,  et al. 1991Cardiac stun in infants undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg101607611Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Rosenberg, EM, Cook, LN 1991Electromechanical dissociation in newborns treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: an extreme form of cardiac stun syndromeCrit Care Med19780784Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Secker-Walker, JS, Edmonds, JF, Spratt, EH,  et al. 1976The source of coronary perfusion during partial bypass for extracorporeal membrane oxygenationAnn Thorac Surg21138143Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Walther, FJ, Bor, M, Gangitano, ES,  et al. 1990Left and right ventricular output in newborn infants undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenationCrit Care Med18148151Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Kurian, MS, Reynolds, ER, Humes, RA,  et al. 1999Cardiac tamponade caused by serous pericardial effusion in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Pediatr Surg3413111314Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Zwischenberger, JB, Cilley, RE, Hirschl, RB,  et al. 1998Life-threatening intrathoracic complications during treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Pediatr Surg23599604Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Kececioglu, D, Galal, O, Halees, Z,  et al. 1994Transesophageal echocardiography in children with cardiac assistThorac Cardiovasc Surg422124Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Ettedgui, JA, Fricker, FJ, Park, SC,  et al. 1996Cardiac catheterization in children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenationCardiol Young65961Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    des Jardins, SE, Crowley, DC, Beekman, RH,  et al. 1999Utility of cardiac catheterization in pediatric cardiac patients on ECMOCathet Cardiovasc Intervent466267Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Booth, KL, Roth, SJ, Perry, SB,  et al. 2002Cardiac catheterization of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Am Coll Cardiol4016811686Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    BIack, MD, Coles, JG, Williams, WG,  et al. 1995Determinants of success in pediatric cardiac patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenationAnn Thorac Surg60133138Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Walters, HL, Hakimi, M, Rice, MD,  et al. 1995Pediatric cardiac surgical ECMO: multivariate analysis of risk factors for hospital deathAnn Thorac Surg60329386Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Brown, KL, Shekerdemian, LS, Penny, DJ 2002Transcatheter closure of a patent arterial duct in a patient on veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenationIntensive Care Med28501503Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Hoskote, A, Bohn, D, Arsdell, G,  et al. 2003Extracorporeal life support in functional single ventricle following palliative surgery [Abstract]Pediatr Crit Care Med4A119Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Darling, EM, Kaemmer, D, Lawson, DS,  et al. 2001Use of ECMO without the oxygenator to provide ventricular support after Norwood stage I proceduresAnn Thorac Surg71735736Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Jaggers, JJ, Forbess, JM, Shah, AS,  et al. 2000Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for infant postcardiotomy support: significance of shunt managementAnn Thorac Surg6914761483Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Heijst, AF, Staak, FH, Hopman, JC,  et al. 2003Ductus arteriosus with left-to-right shunt during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: effects on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamicsPediatr Crit Care Med49499Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Nelson, DP, Schwartz, S, Chang, AC 2003Single ventricle physiology before and after Norwood operationCardiol Young..in pressGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    T Karl, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Saito, A, Miyamura, H, Kanazawa, H,  et al. 1993Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe heart failure after Fontan operationAnn Thorac Surg55153155Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Koul, B, Willen, H, Sjoberg, T,  et al. 1991Pulmonary sequelae of prolonged total venoarterial bypass: evaluation with a new experimental modelAnn Thorac Surg51794799Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Shen, I, Levy, FH, Benak, AM,  et al. 2001Left ventricular dysfunction during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a hypoxemic swine modelAnn Thorac Surg71868871Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    McGowan, FX, Ikegami, M, Nido, PJ,  et al. 1993Cardiopulmonary bypass significantly reduces surfactant activity in childrenJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg106968977Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Bui, KC, Walther, FJ, David-Cu, R,  et al. 1992Phospholipid and surfactant protein A concentration in tracheal aspirates from infants requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Pediatr121271274Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Coraim, FJ, Coraim, HP, Ebermann, R,  et al. 1986Acute respiratory failure after cardiac surgery: clinical experiences with the application of continuous arteriovenous hemofiltrationCrit Care Med14714718Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Kossel, H, Bartsch, H, Philippi, W,  et al. 1994Pulmonary embolism and myocardial hypoxia during extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Pediatr Surg34485487Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Biehl, DA, Stewart, DL, Forti, NH,  et al. 1998Timing of intracranial hemorrhage during extracorporeal life supportASAIO J42938941Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Fukuda, S, Aoyama, M, Yamada, Y,  et al. 1999Comparison of venoarterial versus venovenous access in the cerebral circulation of newborns undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenationPediatr Surg Int157884Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Gannon, CM, Kornhauser, MS, Gross, GW,  et al. 2001When combined, early bedside head ultrasound and electroencephalography predict abnormal computerized tomography or magnetic resonance brain imaging obtained after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatmentJ Perinatol21451455Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Korinthenberg, R, Kachel, W, Koelfen, W,  et al. 1993Neurological findings in newborn infants after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with special reference to EEGDev Med Child Neurol35249257Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Gazzolo, D, Masetti, P, Meli, M,  et al. 2002Elevated S100B protein as an early indicator of intracranial hemorrhage in infants subjected to extracorporeal membrane oxygenationActa paediatr91218221Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Golej, J, Trittenwein, G 1999Early detection of neurologic injury and issues of rehabilitation after pediatric cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenationArtif Organs2310201025Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    The Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest Study Group2002Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrestN Engl J Med346549556Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    McLaughlin, JF, Loeser, JD, Roberts, TS 1997Acquired hydrocephalus associated with superior vena cava syndrome in infantsChilds Nerv Syst135963Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Tobias, JD 2002Controlled hypotension in children: a critical review of available agentsPaediatr Drugs4439453Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Sorof, JM, Stromberg, D, Brewer, ED,  et al. 1999Early initiation of peritoneal dialysis after surgical repair of congenital heart diseasePediatr Nephrol13641645Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Pettignano, R, Heard, M, Davis, R,  et al. 1998Total enteral nutrition versus total parenteral nutrition during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenationCrit Care Med26358363Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Duke, T, Butt, W, South, M,  et al. 1997The DCO2 measured by gastric tonometry predicts survival in children receiving extracorporeal life supportChest111174179Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Sell, LL, Cullen, ML, Whittlesey, GC,  et al. 1986Hemorrhagic complications during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: prevention and treatmentJ Pediatr Surg2110871091Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Dela Cruz, TV, Stewart, DL, Winston, SJ,  et al. 1997Risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patientJ Perinatol171823Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Horwitz, JR, Cofer, BR, Warner, BH,  et al. 1998A multi-center trial of ε-amino caproic acid (Amicar) in the prevention of bleeding in infants on ECMOJ Pediatr Surg3316101613Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Biswas, AK, Lewis, L, Sommerauer, JF 2000Aprotonin in the management of life-threatening bleeding during extracorporeal life supportPerfusion15211216Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Zavadil, DP, Stammers, AH, Willett, LD,  et al. 1998Hematological abnormalities in neonatal patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Extra Corpor Technol308390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    O’Neill, JM, Schutze, GE, Heulitt, MJ,  et al. 2000Nosocomial infections during extracorporeal membrane oxygenationIntensive Care Med2712471253Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Fridriksson, JH, Helmrath, MA, Wessel, JJ,  et al. 2001Hypercalcemia associated with extracorporeal life support in neonatesJ Pediatr Surg36493497Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Melione, JN, Moler, FW, Custer, JR,  et al. 1991Hemodynamic instability after the initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: role of ionized calciumCrit Care Med1912471251Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Bolton, DT 2000Hyperkalemia, donor blood and cardiac arrest associated with ECMO primingAnaesthesia55825826Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Sell, LL, Cullen, ML, Whittlesey, GC,  et al. 1987Experience with renal failure during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: treatment with continuous hemofiltrationJ Pediatr Surg22600602Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Hirther, M, Simoni, J, Dickson, M 1992Elevated levels of endotoxin, oxygen-derived free radicals, and cytokines during extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Pediatr Surg2711991202Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Heiss, KF, Pettit, B, Hirschl, RB,  et al. 1987Renal insufficiency and volume overload in neonatal ECMO managed by continuous ultrafiltrationASAIO Trans33557560Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Mulla, H, Lawson, G, Anrep, C,  et al. 2000In vitro evaluation of sedative drug losses during extracorporeal membrane oxygenationPerfusion152126Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Marcus, B, Atkinson, JB, Wong, PC,  et al. 1995Successful use of transesophageal echocardiography during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in infants after cardiac operationsJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg109846848Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Vermes, E, Houel, R, Simon, M,  et al. 2000Doppler tissue imaging to predict myocardial recovery during mechanical circulatory supportAnn Thorac Surg7021492151Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Meehan, JJ, Haney, BM, Snyder, CL,  et al. 2002Outcome after recannulation and a second course of extracorporeal membrane oxygenationJ Pediatr Surg3845850Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Milting H, Kassner A, Arusoglu L, et al. (2002, December) Structural and biochemical effects of mechanical unloading of terminal failing heart. In: Proceedings of the Third Mechanical Circulatory Support Meeting: Today’s Facts and Future Trends. Bad Oeyenhausen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Birks EJ (2002, December) Myocardial recovery: Harefield approach. In: Proceedings of the Third Mechanical Circulatory Support Meeting: Today’s Facts and Future Trends. Bad Oeyenhausen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Loebe, M, Hennig, E, Muller, J,  et al. 1997Long-term mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation, for recovery from cardiomyopathy, and for permanent replacementEur J Cardiothorac Surg.S18S24Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Frazier, OH, Macris, MT, Myers, TJ,  et al. 1994Improved survival after extended bridge to cardiac transplantationAnn Thorac Surg5714161422Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Matta, M, Stetson, SJ, Perez-Verdia, A,  et al. 2002Molecular remodelling of dystrophin in patients with end-stage cardiomyopathies and reversal in patients on assistance-device therapyLancet359936941Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Sodian, R, Loebe, M, Schmitt, C,  et al. 2001Decreased plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide as a potential indicator of cardiac recovery in patients supported by mechanical circulatory assist systemsJ Am Coll Cardiol3819421949Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsTexas Children’s Hospital and Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryTexas Children’s Hospital and Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations