Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 274–286 | Cite as

Guidelines for the Evaluation of Heart Failure in the Fetus With or Without Hydrops

  • J. C. Huhta


Fetal echocardiography has progressed to be able to diagnose many forms of congenital heart disease and to assess the prognosis of cardiac lesions based on their anatomy and presentation in utero. However, the presence of signs of fetal heart failure, such as hydrops or valvular regurgitation, makes the assessment of prognosis difficult. This article outlines a straightforward method for the rapid evaluation of the fetus who may have congestive heart failure. The differentiation of the prehydropic state from normal is illustrated.


Fetal Congestive heart failure Congenital heart disease Hydrops fetalis Doppler echocardiography 

Supplementary material

Fetus with scalp edema, representing advanced hydrops.

Fetus with mitral and tricuspid regurgitation.

Fetus with arteriovenous fistula.

Fetus with severe mitral and tricuspid regurgitation.

Fetus with pulmonary regurgitation.

3-0591-3-f.avi (3.3 mb)
Recipient twin in twin–twin transfusion syndrome.

Recipient twin in twin–twin transfusion syndrome, with color map demonstrating mitral and trisupid regurgitation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Huhta
    • 1
  1. 1.University of South Florida College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 140 7th Ave. South, Children’s Research InstituteSt. PetersburgUSA

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