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Trace Metals and Variations of Antioxidant Enzymes in Arctic Bivalve Populations

  • F.  Regoli
  • H.  Hummel
  • C.  Amiard-Triquet
  • C.  Larroux
  • A.  Sukhotin

Abstract.

In the framework of an INTAS project, arctic populations of the clam Macoma balthica were collected from seven stations (Mezen, Khaypudyr, Pechora 3, Pechora 5, Dvina, Keret 1, and Keret 2) in the White Sea and Pechora Sea. The main objectives of this research were to define baseline concentrations of trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn) in M. balthica and to evaluate antioxidant responses as biomarkers of anthropogenic stress in these organisms. The antioxidant parameters examined included the levels of glutathione and the activities of several glutathione-dependent and antioxidant enzymes: glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II (EC 4.4.1.5 and EC 3.1.2.6), glutathione S-transferases (EC 2.5.1.18), glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2), glutathione peroxidases (EC1.11.1.9 and EC 2.5.1.18, respectively, for Se-dependent and Se-independent forms), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6). Organisms revealed enhanced concentrations of lead in both Keret stations, Khaypudyr, and Mezen, and high levels of copper in Keret and cadmium in Khaypudyr. At the biochemical level, organisms from Pechora 3, Pechora 5, and Dvina were not statistically different, whereas those from Mezen and Khaypudyr exhibited higher activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glyoxalase II. Catalase levels were lower in Mezen and Khaypudyr. More heterogeneous were the responses of glyoxalase I and glutathione S-transferases, while no significant differences among the stations were observed for glutathione reductase. Multiple regression analyses revealed significant positive relationships between the main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, glyoxalase I, and glyoxalase II), and confirmed the exception of catalase, which, when significant, was negatively correlated with the other parameters. The results support the suitability of antioxidant responses as biomarkers of pollutant exposure and/or toxicity for arctic biomonitoring programs even though only moderately polluted sites were sampled.

Keywords

Glutathione Antioxidant Enzyme Catalase Superoxide Dismutase Bivalve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • F.  Regoli
    • 1
  • H.  Hummel
    • 2
  • C.  Amiard-Triquet
    • 3
  • C.  Larroux
    • 3
  • A.  Sukhotin
    • 4
  1. 1.Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Università di Ancona, Via Ranieri Monte D'Ago, I-60100 Ancona, Italy; IT
  2. 2.Centre for Estuarine and Coastal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Korringaweg 7, 4401NT Yerseke, The Netherlands NL
  3. 3.Université de Nantes, CNRS, Faculté de Pharmacie, Laboratoire d'Ecotoxicologie, 1 Rue Gaston Veil, 44035 Cedex, Nantes, France FR
  4. 4.Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya 1, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia RU

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