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Occurrence, Distribution, and Potential Sources of Organophosphate Esters in Urban and Rural Surface Water in Shanghai, China

  • Zhenyong Zhang
  • Haiyang Shao
  • Minghong Wu
  • Junyun Zhang
  • Dongyang Li
  • Jinsong Li
  • Hongyong Wang
  • Wenyan Shi
  • Gang XuEmail author
Article

Abstract

In this study, the occurrence and distribution patterns of eight organophosphate esters (OPEs) were investigated in urban and rural surface water in a typical cosmopolitan city: Shanghai, China. In addition, concentration levels and removal efficiencies of seven sewage treatment plants were analyzed. The OPEs concentrations detected in urban rivers were significantly higher than those detected in rural rivers. Total OPEs ranged from 185.4 to 321 ng L−1 in rural surface water and from 340 to 1688.7 ng L−1 in urban, with an average of 221.8 ng L−1 and 850.2 ng L−1, respectively. Compared with other studies published in the world, the OPEs contamination in surface river water in Shanghai was at a moderate level. Furthermore, the potential sources of OPEs in urban surface water were investigated, and the results indicated that OPEs in urban surface water mainly came from three potential sources. In rural surface water, the OPE concentrations were uniformly distributed, so OPEs in rural surface water may came from nonpoint source pollution. Last, a preliminary environmental risk assessment and health risk assessment were conducted. The results showed low environmental risks at all sampling sites (except for sampling point R7: medium risk for algae) for the three aquatic organisms (algae, daphnia, and fish). Health risk assessment indicated a noncarcinogenic risk for diverse human groups for ƩOPEs.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11675098, 11605111, 11775138, and 11875185) and Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (No. IRT-17R71).

Supplementary material

244_2019_633_MOESM1_ESM.doc (126 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 126 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhenyong Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Haiyang Shao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Minghong Wu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Junyun Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dongyang Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jinsong Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongyong Wang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Wenyan Shi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Gang Xu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Applied Radiation of Shanghai, School of Environmental and Chemical EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Environmental and Chemical EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Shanghai Applied Radiation InstituteShanghai UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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