Advertisement

Assessing Mercury Mobility in Sediment of the Union Canal, Scotland, UK by Sequential Extraction and Thermal Desorption

  • Olga CavouraEmail author
  • Christine M. Davidson
  • Helen E. Keenan
  • Ana T. Reis
  • Eduarda Pereira
Article

Abstract

The mobility of mercury (Hg) was assessed in sediment from the Union Canal, Scotland, UK. Samples collected from the vicinity of a former munitions factory that manufactured mercury fulminate detonators were subjected to sequential extraction followed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) and direct analysis using thermal desorption (TD). The sequential extraction indicated that > 75% of mercury (up to 429 mg kg−1) was in mobile forms, with < 12% semimobile and < 23% nonmobile species. In the TD method, > 67% of the total Hg content was desorbed in the temperature range 100–250 °C consistent with species weakly attached to the mineral matrix [tentatively identified as an iron (oxy)hydroxide-associated species]. This predominance of mobile mercury species may arise from a lack of association between Hg and either organic matter or sulfur in the sediments. Further investigation of Hg mobilization, transport, and assimilation/biomagnification is required both to determine whether there is a need for remediation of the sediment and to improve understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of Hg in shallow, oxic, freshwater systems.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Scottish Canals (formerly British Waterways) for providing background information on the canal system and granting permission to sample.

References

  1. ATSDR (2013) Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) Toxic substances portal. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls/pdfs/atsdr_mrls_july_2013.pdf
  2. Bacon JR, Davidson CM (2008) Is there a future for sequential chemical extraction? Analyst 133:25–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bełdowska M, Saniewska D, Gębka K, Kwasigroch U, Korejwo E, Kobos J (2018) Simple screening technique for determination of adsorbed and absorbed mercury in particulate matter in atmospheric and aquatic environment. Talanta 182:340–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beldowski J, Pempkowiak J (2003) Horizontal and vertical variabilities of mercury concentration and speciation in sediment of the Gdansk Basin, Southern Baltic Sea. Chemosphere 53:645–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biester H, Gosar M, Muller G (1999) Mercury speciation in tailings of the Idrija mercury mine. J Geochem Explor 65:195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bloom NS, Preus E, Katon J, Hitner M (2003) Selective extractions to assess the biogeochemically relevant fractionation of inorganic mercury in sediments and soils. Anal Chim Acta 479:233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bollen A, Wenke A, Biester H (2008) Mercury speciation analyses in HgCl2-contaminated soils and groundwater: implications for risk assessment and remediation strategies. Water Res 42:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. BS (2000) British Standards ISO 12880:2000: Characterisation of sludges: determination of dry residue and water content. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Cavoura O, Brombach CC, Cortis R, Davidson CM, Gajdosechova Z, Keenan HE, Krupp EM (2017) Mercury alkylation in freshwater sediments from Scottish Canals. Chemosphere 183:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Covelli S,  Protopsalti I, Acquavita A, Sperle M, Bonardi M, Emili A (2012) Spatial variation, speciation and sedimentary records of mercury in the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Cont Shelf Res 35:29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dyrssen D, Wedborg M (1991) The sulfur-mercury(II) system in natural-waters. Water Air Soil Pollut 56:507–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Faust SD, Osman MA (1981) Chemistry of natural waters. Science Publishers, Inc. Mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium, selenium, and chromium in aquatic environments, Ann Arbor, pp 200–225Google Scholar
  13. Frohne T, Rinklebe J (2013) Biogeochemical fractions of mercury in soil profiles of two different floodplain ecosystems in Germany. Water Air Soil Poll 224:1591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garcia-Ordiales E, Covelli S, Rico JM, Roquení N, Fontolan G, Flor-Blanco G, Cienfuegos P, Loredo J (2018) Occurrence and speciation of arsenic and mercury in estuarine sediments affected by mining activities (Asturias, northern Spain). Chemosphere 198:281–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Han Y, Kingston HM, Boylan HM, Rahman GMM, Shah S, Richter RC, Link DD, Bhandari S (2003) Speciation of mercury in soil and sediment by selective solvent and acid extraction. Anal Bioanal Chem 375:428–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hissier C, Probst JL (2006) Chlor-alkali industrial contamination and riverine transport of mercury: distribution and partitioning of mercury between water, suspended matter, and bottom sediment of the Thur River, France. Appl Geochem 90:1837–1854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Issaro N, Abi-Ghanem C, Bermond A (2009) Fractionation studies of mercury in soils and sediments: a review of the chemical reagents used for mercury extraction. Anal Chim Acta 631:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim CS, Rytuba JJ, Brown GE (2004a) EXAFS study of mercury(II) sorption to Fe- and Al-(hydr)oxides I. Effects of pH. J Colloid Interface Sci 271:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim CS, Rytuba JJ, Brown GE (2004b) EXAFS study of mercury(II) sorption to Fe- and Al-(hydr)oxides. II. Effects of chloride and sulfate. J Colloid Interface Sci 270:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu J, Jiang T, Wang F, Zhang J, Wang D, Huang R, Yin D, Liu Z, Wang J (2018) Inorganic sulfur and mercury speciation in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: the role of inorganic reduced sulfur on mercury methylation. Environ Pollut 237:1112–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Oliveri E, Manta DS, Bonsignore M, Cappello S, Tranchida G, Bagnato E, Sabatino N, Santisi S, Sprovieri M (2016) Mobility of mercury in contaminated marine sediments: biogeochemical pathways. Mar Chem 186:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pinedo-Hernández J, Marrugo-Negrete J, Díez S (2015) Speciation and bioavailability of mercury in sediments impacted by goldmining in Colombia. Chemosphere 119:1289–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rahman GMM, Kingston HM (2005) Development of a microwave-assisted extraction method and isotopic validation of mercury species in soils and sediments. J Anal At Spectrom 20:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ram A, Borole DV, Rokade MA, Zingde MD (2009) Diagenesis and bioavailability of mercury in the contaminated sediments of Ulhas Estuary, India. Mar Pollut Bull 58:1685–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ravichandran M (2004) Interactions between mercury and dissolved organic matter: a review. Chemosphere 55:319–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Reis AT, Coelho JP, Rodrigues SM, Rocha R, Davidson CM, Duarte AC, Pereira E (2012) Development and validation of a simple thermo-desorption technique for mercury speciation in soils and sediments. Talanta 99:363–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reis AT, Coelho JP, Rucandio I, Davidson CM, Duarte AC, Pereira E (2015) Thermo-desorption: a valid tool for mercury speciation in soils and sediments? Geoderma 237–238:98–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rodrigues SM, Henriques B, Coimbra J, Ferreira da Silva E, Pereira ME, Duarte AC (2010) Water-soluble fraction of mercury, arsenic and other potentially toxic elements in highly contaminated sediments and soils. Chemosphere 78:1301–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Saniewska D, Bełdowska M (2017) Mercury fractionation in soil and sediment samples using thermo-desorption method. Talanta 168:152–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schumacher B (2002) Methods for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in soil and sediment US EPA Ecological risk assessment support centre Office of Research and Development US EPAGoogle Scholar
  31. Skyllberg U, Bloom PR, Qian J, Lin CM, Bleam WF (2006) Complexation of mercury(II) in soil organic matter: EXAFS evidence for linear two-coordination with reduced sulfur groups. Environ Sci Technol 40:4174–4180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smith NA, Lassière OL (2000) Resolving mercury contamination in the Union Canal, Scotland in the millennium link—the rehabilitation of the Forth and Clyde and Union canals. G. Fleming Thomas Telford PublishingGoogle Scholar
  33. USEPA (2014) EPA METHOD 3200 Mercury species fractionation and quantification by microwave assisted extraction, selective solvent extraction and/or solid phase extractionGoogle Scholar
  34. Wallschlager D, Desai MVM, Spengler M (1998) Mercury speciation in floodplain soil and sediment along a contaminated river transect. J Environ Qual 27:1034–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhu W, Song Y, Adediran GA, Jiang T, Reis AT, Pereira E, Skyllberg U, Bjorn E (2018) Mercury transformations in resuspended contaminated sediment controlled by redox conditions, chemical speciation and sources of organic matter. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 220:158–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sanitary Engineering and Environmental HealthNational School of Public HealthAthensGreece
  2. 2.WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied ChemistryUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowUK
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowUK
  4. 4.CESAM, Department of ChemistryUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal

Personalised recommendations