Advertisement

Pollution Characterization and Source Apportionment of Day and Night PM2.5 Samples in Urban and Suburban Communities of Tianjin (China)

  • Yan ZhaoEmail author
  • Lihong Feng
  • Bodong Shang
  • Jianping Li
  • Guang Lv
  • Yinghong Wu
Article

Abstract

Day and night PM2.5 samples were collected from two typical urban and suburban communities in Tianjin. The major chemical components in PM2.5, including the metal elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and inorganic water-soluble ions, were monitored. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used to apportion the potential sources of PM2.5 at the two sites in the daytime and nighttime. The results indicated that the PM2.5 concentration was higher in the suburban area than in the urban area during the daytime in winter. The daytime and nighttime PAHs concentrations at both sites were both generally higher in winter than in summer. The concentrations of some of the metal elements were higher in summer than in winter. Regional differences and day and night differences in the metals and water-soluble ions commonly existed. The PMF analysis indicated that coal combustion and transportation-related sources were the predominant sources in the urban and suburban areas in the daytime in winter, and secondary aerosols were the most important source for the suburban area in the nighttime in winter. There were more pollution sources of PM2.5 during the daytime in summer, especially in the suburban area. In the nighttime in summer, the pollution sources of PM2.5 in the urban and suburbs areas were basically the same, but the source apportionment was quite different.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the contribution of all the members who participated in the sampling and chemical analysis.

Supplementary material

244_2019_614_MOESM1_ESM.doc (269 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 269 kb)
244_2019_614_MOESM2_ESM.doc (282 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 282 kb)

References

  1. Adamson IYR, Prieditis H, Hedgecock C, Vincent R et al (2000) Zinc is the toxic factor in the lung response to an atmospheric particulate sample. Toxicol Appl Pharm 166(2):111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida SM, Lage J, Fernandez B, Garcia S, Reis MA, Chaves PC (2015) Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry. Sci Total Environ 521–522:411–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrado AI, García S, Barrado E, Pérez RM (2012) PM2.5-bound PAHs and hydroxy-PAHs in atmospheric aerosol samples: correlations with seasons and with physical and chemical factors. Atmos Environ 49(3):224–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behera D, Balamugesh T (2005) Indoor air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer in women. J Assoc Physicians India 53(3):190–192Google Scholar
  5. Bozlaker A, Peccia J, Chellam S (2017) Indoor/outdoor relationships and anthropogenic elemental signatures in airborne PM2.5 at a high school: impacts of petroleum refining emissions on lanthanoid enrichment. Environ Sci Technol 51(9):4851–4859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bragato M, Joshi K, Carlson JB, Tenorio JAS, Levendis YA (2012) Combustion of coal, bagasse and blends thereof: part II: speciation of PAH emission. Fuel 96:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cesari D, De Benedetto GE, Bonasoni P, Busetto M, Dinoi A, Merico E et al (2018) Seasonal variability of PM2.5 and PM10 composition and sources in an urban background site in southern Italy. Sci Total Environ 612:202–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen SC, Liao CM (2006) Health risk assessment on human exposed environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution sources. Sci Total Environ 366:112–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Franco E, Hall E, Hossain M, Chen A, Haynes EN, Jones D et al (2015) Air pollution and stillbirth risk: exposure to airborne particulate matter during pregnancy is associated with fetal death. PLoS ONE 10(3):e0120594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ebisu K, Bell ML (2012) Airborne PM2.5 chemical components and low birth weight in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Environ Health Perspect 120(2):1746–1752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Finkelman RB (1994) Modes of occurrence of potentially hazardous elements in coal: levels of confidence. Fuel Process Technol 3(1):21–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gao J, Wang K, Wang Y, Liu S, Zhu C, Hao J et al (2017) Temporal–spatial characteristics and source apportionment of PM2.5 as well as its associated chemical species in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region of China. Environ Pollut 233:714–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garza A, Vega R, Soto E (2006) Cellular mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity. Med Sci Monitor 12(3):57–65Google Scholar
  14. Gu J, Bai Z, Li W, Wu L, Liu A, Dong H et al (2011) Chemical composition of PM2.5 during winter in Tianjin, China. Particuology 9(3):215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guarieiro ALN, Santos JVS, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Torres EA, da Rocha GO, de Andrade JB (2014) Redox activity and PAH content in size-classified nanoparticles emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel and diesel blends. Fuel 116:490–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harrison RM, Yin JX (2000) Particulate matter in the atmosphere: which particle properties are important for its effects on health. Sci Total Environ 249(1–3):85–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hong L, Lei H, Shuwen L, Ling Z, Bin Y (2011) Neonatal mortality trends analysis in Gansu from 2004 to 2011. Chin J Child Health Care 22(4):441–444Google Scholar
  18. Hu R, Liu G, Zhang H, Xue H, Wang X (2017) Levels and sources of PAHs in air-borne PM2.5 of Hefei city, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 98(2):270–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Judith CC, John GW (2006) Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 56:1368–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kidwell CB, Ondov JM (2004) Elemental analysis of sub-hourly ambient aerosol collections. Aerosol Sci Technol 38:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kloog I, Ridgway B, Koutrakis P, Coull BA, Schwartz JD (2013) Long-and short-term exposure to PM2.5 and mortality: using novel exposure models. Epidemiology 24(4):555–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kong S, Han B, Bai Z, Chen L, Shi J, Xu Z (2010) Receptor modeling of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in different seasons and long-range transport analysis at a coastal site of Tianjin, China. Sci Total Environ 408(20):4681–4694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kulkarni P, Venkataraman C (2000) Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mumbai, India. Atmos Environ 34:2785–2790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar P, Kumar S, Yadav S (2018) Seasonal variations in size distribution, water-soluble ions, and carbon content of size-segregated aerosols over New Delhi. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25(6):1–18Google Scholar
  25. Li TC, Yuan CS, Huang HC, Lee CL, Wu SP, Tong C (2016a) Inter-comparison of seasonal variation, chemical characteristics, and source identification of atmospheric fine particles on both sides of the Taiwan strait. Sci Rep 6(22956):1–16Google Scholar
  26. Li Y, Liu X, Hou L, Li X, Meng F, Wang J et al (2016b) Investigation into atmospheric PM2.5-borne PAHs in Eastern cities of China: concentration, source diagnosis and health risk assessment. Environ Sci Process Impacts 18(5):529–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liao HT, Chou CC, Chow JC, Watson JG, Hopke PK, Wu CF (2015) Source and risk apportionment of selected VOCs and PM2.5 species using partially constrained receptor models with multiple time resolution data. Environ Pollut 205:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu J, Wu D, Fan S, Mao X, Chen H (2017) A one-year, on-line, multi-site observational study on water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 over the Pearl River Delta region, China. Sci Total Environ 601–602:1720–1732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu T, Tian Y, Xue Q, Wei Z, Feng Y, Yinchang F (2018) An advanced three-way factor analysis model (SDABB model) for size-resolved PM source apportionment constrained by size distribution of chemical species in source profiles. Environ Pollut.  https://doi.org/10.2016/j.envpol.2018.07.118 Google Scholar
  30. Lough GC, Schauer JJ, Park JS, Shafer MM, Deminter JT, Weinstrin JP (2005) Emissions of metals associated with motor vehicle roadways. Environ Sci Technol 39(3):826–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Manalis N, Grivas G, Protonotarios V, Moutsatsou A, Samara C, Chaloulakou A (2005) Toxic metal content of particulate matter (PM10), within the Greater Area of Athens. Chemosphere 60(4):557–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Martellini T, Giannoni M, Lepri L, Katsoyiannis A, Cincinelli A (2012) One year intensive PM2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monitoring in the area of Tuscany, Italy. Concentrations, source understanding and implications. Environ Pollut 164:252–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mesías Monsalve S, Martínez L, Yohannessen Vásquez K, Alvarado Orellana S, Klarián Vergara J, Martín Mateo M et al (2018) Trace element contents in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in urban school microenvironments near a contaminated beach with mine tailings, Chañaral, Chile. Environ Geochem Health 40(3):1077–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mi H-H, Lee W-J, Wu T-L, Lin T-C, Wang L-C, Chao H-R (1996) PAH emissions from gasoline powered engine. J Environ Sci Health (A) 3(8):1981–2003Google Scholar
  35. Naeher LP, Brauer M, Lipsett M, Zelikoff JT, Simpson CD, Koenig JQ et al (2007) Wood smoke health effects: a review. Inhal Toxicol 19:67–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Naqar PK, Singh D, Sharma M, Kumai A, Aneja VP, George MP et al (2017) Characterization of PM2.5 in Delhi: role and impact of secondary aerosol, burning of biomass, and municipal solid waste and crustal matter. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 24(32):25179–25189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Norris G, Duvall R, Brown S, Bai S (2014) EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 fundamentals and user guide. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. Seinfeld JH (2004) Air pollution: a half century of progress. Am Inst Chem Eng J 50:1096–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Srimuruganandam B, Shiva NSM (2012) Source characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 mass using a chemical mass balance model at urban roadside. Sci Total Environ 433:8–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Takaoka M, Shiota K, Imai G, Oshita K (2014) Emission of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and elements from municipal solid waste incinerators. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 18:72–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tan JH, Duan JC, Ma YL, Yang FM, Cheng Y, He KB et al (2014) Source of atmospheric heavy metals in winter in Foshan, China. Sci Total Environ 493:262–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tan J, Zhang L, Zhou X, Duan J, Li Y, Hu J et al (2017) Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Lanzhou, China. Sci Total Environ 601–602:1743–1752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tham YWF, Takeda K, Sakugawa H (2008) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with atmospheric particles in Higashi Hiroshima Japan: influence of meteorological conditions and seasonal variations. Atmos Res 88:224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vousta D, Samara C, Manoli E, Lazarou D, Tzoumaka P (2014) Ionic composition of PM2.5 at urban sites of northern Greece: secondary inorganic aerosol formation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(7):4995–5006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wåhlin P, Berkowicz R, Palmgren F (2006) Characterisation of traffic-generated particulate matter in Copenhagen. Atmos Environ 40:2151–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang BQ, Liu JF, Ren ZH, Chen RH (2016a) Concentrations, properties, and health risk of PM2.5 in the Tianjin city subway system. Environ Sci Pollut R 23(22):1–11Google Scholar
  47. Wang Q, Liu M, Yu Y, Li Y (2016b) Characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from Shanghai city, China. Environ Pollut 218:118–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wang Y, Jia C, Tao J, Zhang L, Liang X, Ma J et al (2016c) Chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in a semi-arid and petrochemical-industrialized city, northwest China. Sci Total Environ 573:1031–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang J, Cao J, Dong Z, Guinot B, Gao M, Huang H et al (2017) Seasonal variation, spatial distribution and source apportionment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at nineteen communities in Xi’an, China: the effects of suburban scattered emissions in winter. Environ Pollut 231(Pt2):1330–1343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Xu JH, Jiang H (2015) Estimation of PM2.5 concentration over the Yangtze delta using remote sensing: analysis of spatial and temporal variations. Huan jing ke xue 36(9):3119–3127Google Scholar
  51. Yang Y, Liu L, Xu C, Li N, Liu Z, Wang Q et al (2018) Source apportionment and influencing factor analysis of residential indoor PM2.5 in Beijing. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15(4):686–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yao X, Chan CK, Fang M, Cadle S, Chan T, Mulawa P et al (2002) The water-soluble ionic composition of PM2.5 in Shanghai and Beijing, China. Atmos Environ 36:4223–4234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yao L, Lu N, Yue X, Du J, Yang C (2015) Comparison of hourly PM2.5 observations between urban and suburban areas in Beijing, China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12(10):12264–12276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yong Y, Christakos G (2015) Spatiotemporal characterization of ambient PM2.5 concentrations in Shandong province (China). Environ Sci Technol 49(22):13431–13438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yu L, Wang G, Zhang R, Zhang L, Song Y, Wu B et al (2013) Characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in an urban environment in Beijing. Aerosol Air Qual Res 13:574–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang L, Jin X, Johnson AC, Giesy JP (2016a) Hazard posed by metals and as in PM2.5 in air of five megacities in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region of China during APEC. Environ Sci Pollut R 23(17):1–10Google Scholar
  57. Zhang Y, Ji X, Ku T, Li G, Sang N (2016b) Heavy metals bound to fine particulate matter from northern China induce season-dependent health risks: a study based on myocardial toxicity. Environ Pollut 216:380–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang J, Zhou X, Wang Z, Yang L, Wang J, Wang W et al (2017) Trace elements in PM2.5 in Shandong province: source identification and health risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 621:558–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhao P-S, Xu X-F, Meng W, Dong F, He D, Shi Q-F, Zhang X-L (2012) Characteristics of hazy days in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. China Environ Sci 32:31–36Google Scholar
  60. Zhou L, Hopke PK, Paatero P, Ondov JM, Pancras JP, Pekney NJ et al (2004) Advanced factor analysis for multiple time resolution aerosol composition data. Atmos Environ 38:4909–4920CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental and HealthTianjin Centers for Disease Control and PreventionTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations