Advertisement

Distribution, Source Apportionment, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Surficial Sediments from the Coastal Areas of Bangladesh

  • Md. Habibullah-Al-MamunEmail author
  • Md. Kawser Ahmed
  • Anwar Hossain
  • Shigeki Masunaga
Article

Abstract

The surficial sediments were collected in winter and summer (2015) from the coastal areas of Bangladesh and analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentration of PAHs (∑PAHs) were 349.8–11,058.8 and 199.9–17,089.1 ng/g dry weight (dw) in winter and summer, respectively. Sediements from the areas with recent urbanization and industrialization (Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, and Sundarbans) were more contaminated with PAHs than the unindustrialized area (Meghna Estuary). The concentrations of ∑PAHs were slightly higher in summer than those in winter, but the seasonal variations were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Molecular ratios suggested mixed sources of PAHs in the Bangladeshi coastal areas with a slight imposition of pyrolytic inputs closely related to shipping and fishing activities as well as industrial and municipal sewage discharge. According to ecological risk assessment, the measured levels of sedimentary PAHs exceeded some of the existing national and international environmental quality guidelines/standards, and thus might cause acute biological damage in the studied areas of the Bay of Bengal coast of Bangladesh.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the FY2016 Asia Focused Academic Research Grant from the Heiwa Nakajima Foundation (http://hnf.jp/josei/ichiran/2016ichiran.pdf). The authors are also grateful for financial support for Dr. Md. Habibullah-Al-Mamun from the Research Collaboration Promotion Fund provided by Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Japan (Grant No. 65A0516). Furthermore, we are thankful for the kind help from the members of the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the field sampling.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

244_2018_571_MOESM1_ESM.docx (61 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 61 kb)

References

  1. Abdel-Shafy HI, Mansour MSM (2016) A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egypt J Petrol 25:107–123Google Scholar
  2. Accardi-Dey A, Gschwend PM (2002) Assessing the combined roles of natural organic matter and black carbon as sorbents in sediments. Environ Sci Technol 36:21–29Google Scholar
  3. Arias AH, Vazquez-Botello A, Tombesi N, Ponce-Vélez G, Freije H, Marcovecchio J (2010) Presence, distribution, and origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina. Environ Monit Assess 160:301–314Google Scholar
  4. Aziz F, Syed JH, Malik RN, Katsoyiannis A, Mahmood A, Li J, Zhang G, Jones KC (2014) Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Soan River, Pakistan: insights into distribution, composition, sources and ecological risk assessment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 109:77–84Google Scholar
  5. Barakat AO, Mostafa A, Wade TL, Sweet ST, Sayed NBE (2011) Distribution and characteristics of PAHs in sediments from the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt. Mar Pollut Bull 62(9):1969–1978Google Scholar
  6. Barrie LA, Gregor D, Hargrave B, Lake R, Muir D, Shearer R, Tracey B, Bidleman T (1992) Arctic contaminants: sources, occurrence and pathways. Sci Total Environ 122(1–2):1–74Google Scholar
  7. Baumard P, Budzinski H, Garrigues P (1998) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean sea. Environ Toxicol Chem 17(5):765–776Google Scholar
  8. Behnisch PA, Hosoe K, Sakai S (2003) Brominate dioxin-like compounds: invitro assessment in comparison to classical dioxin-like compounds and other polyaromatic compounds. Environ Int 29(6):861–877Google Scholar
  9. Chen CW, Chen CF (2011) Distribution, origin, and potential toxicological significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan. Mar Pollut Bull 63:417–423Google Scholar
  10. Chen CF, Chen CW, Dong CD, Kao CM (2013) Assessment of toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan. Sci Tot Environ 463–464:1174–1181Google Scholar
  11. Deshmukh DK, Deb MK, Mkoma SL (2013) Size distribution and seasonal variation of size-segregated particulate matter in the ambient air of Raipur city, India. Air Qual Atmos Health 6:259–276Google Scholar
  12. Dhananjayan V, Muralidharan S, Peter VR (2012) Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment collected along the Harbour Line, Mumbai. India. Int J Oceanogr.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/403615 Google Scholar
  13. Dudhagara DR, Rajpara RK, Bhatt JK, Gosai HB, Sachaniya BK, Dave BP (2016) Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in historically contaminated surface sediments at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat, India. Environ Pollut 213:338–346Google Scholar
  14. Galarneau E (2008) Source specificity and atmospheric processing of airborne PAHs: implications for source apportionment. Atmos Environ 42:8139–8149Google Scholar
  15. Goswami P, Ohura T, Guruge KS, Yoshioka M, Yamanaka N, Akiba M, Munuswamy N (2016) Spatio-temporal distribution, source, and genotoxic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine and riverine sediments from southern India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 130:113–123Google Scholar
  16. Gu YG, Lin Q, Lu TT, Ke CL, Sun RX, Du FY (2013) Levels, composition profiles and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Nan’ao Island, a representative mariculture base in South China. Mar Pollut Bull 75:310–316Google Scholar
  17. Gu YG, Ke CL, Liu Q, Lin Q (2016) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base on the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: characterization and risk implications. Mar Pollut Bull 110(1):603–608Google Scholar
  18. Horii Y, Ohura T, Yamashita N, Kannan K (2009) Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from industrial areas in Japan and the United States. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 57:651–660Google Scholar
  19. Hossain MMM (2006) Ship breaking activities and its impact on the coastal zone of Chittagong, Bangladesh: towards sustainable management. Advocacy and publication unit, Young power in social action (YPSA), Chittagong, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  20. IAEA (2003) Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, IAEA-TECDOC-1360Google Scholar
  21. IARC (1987) Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Part 1. Chemicals. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk to Humans, Environmental and Experimental Data, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  22. Jiang YF, Wang XT, Wang F, Jia Y, Wu MH, Sheng GY, Fu JM (2009) Levels, composition profiles and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soil of Shanghai, China. Chemosphere 75:1112–1118Google Scholar
  23. Johnston GP, Lineman D, Johnston CG, Leff L (2015) Characterization, sources and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in long-term contaminated riverbank sediments. Environ Earth Sci 74:3519–3529Google Scholar
  24. Jones KC, de Voogt P (1999) Persistent organic pollutants (POPs): state of the science. Environ Pollut 100:209–221Google Scholar
  25. Katsoyiannis A, Terzi E, Cai QY (2007) On the use of PAH molecular diagnostic ratios in sewage sludge for the understanding of the PAH sources. Is this use appropriate? Chemosphere 69:1337–1339Google Scholar
  26. Lee ML, Novotny MV, Bartle KD (1981) Analytical chemistry of polycyclic aromatic coumpounds. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Li X, Hou L, Li Y, Liu M, Lin X, Cheng L (2016) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship. Sci Total Environ 566–567:1387–1397Google Scholar
  28. Lohmann R, Macfarlane JK, Gschwend PM (2005) Importance of black carbon to sorption of native PAHs, PCBs, and PCDDs in Boston and New York harbor sediments. Environ Sci Technol 39(1):141–148Google Scholar
  29. Long ER, Macdonald DD, Smith SL, Calder FD (1995) Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Environ Manag 19:81–97Google Scholar
  30. Mai BX, Qi SH, Zeng EY, Yang QS, Zhang G, Fu JM, Sheng GY, Peng PG, Wang ZS (2003) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal region off Macao, China: assessment of input sources and transport pathways using compositional analysis. Environ Sci Technol 37(21):4855–4863Google Scholar
  31. Martins CC, Bícego MC, Rose NL, Taniguchi S, Lourenço RA, Figueira RCL, Mahiques MM, Montone RC (2010) Historical record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) in marine sediment cores from Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. Environ Pollut 158:192–200Google Scholar
  32. Nagy AS, Szabó J, Vass I (2014) Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water and sediments of the Danube River and its tributaries, Hungary. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 49(10):1134–1141Google Scholar
  33. Neff JM (1979) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment. Sources, fates and biological effects. Applied Science Publishers, EssexGoogle Scholar
  34. Neşer G, Kontas A, Unsalan D, Altay O, Darılmaz E, Uluturhan E, Küçüksezgin F, Tekoğul N, Yercan F (2012) Polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons pollution at the coast of Aliağa (Turkey) ship recycling zone. Mar Pollut Bull 64:1055–1059Google Scholar
  35. Nøst TH, Halse AK, Randall S, Borgen AR, Schlabach M, Paul A, Rahman A, Breivik K (2015) High concentrations of organic contaminants in air from ship breaking activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Environ Sci Technol 49(19):11372–11380Google Scholar
  36. Oen AMP, Cornelissen G, Breedveld GD (2006) Relation between PAH and black carbon contents in size fractions of Norwegian harbor sediments. Environ Pollut 141:370–380Google Scholar
  37. Peters CA, Knightes CD, Brown DG (1999) Long-term composition dynamics of PAH-containing NAPLs and implications for risk assessment. Environ Sci Technol 33:4499–4507Google Scholar
  38. Pozo K, Perra G, Menchi V, Urrutia R, Parra O, Rudolph A, Focardi S (2011) Levels and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Lenga estuary, central Chile. Mar Pollut Bull 62(7):1572–1576Google Scholar
  39. Qiao M, Wang C, Huang S, Wang D, Wang Z (2006) Composition, sources, and potential toxicological significance of PAHs in the surface sediments of the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China. Environ Int 32(1):28–33Google Scholar
  40. Rockne KJ, Shor LM, Young LY, Taghon GL, Kosson DS (2002) Distributed sequestration and release of PAHs in weathered sediment: the role of sediment structure and organic carbon properties. Environ Sci Technol 36(12):2636–2644Google Scholar
  41. Salem FB, Said OB, Duran R, Monperrus M (2016) Validation of an adapted QuEChERS method for the simultaneous analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in sediment by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 96(5):678–684Google Scholar
  42. Salvo VS, Gallizia I, Moreno M, Fabiano M (2005) Fungal communities in PAH-impacted sediments of Genoa-Voltri Harbour (NW Mediterranean, Italy). Mar Pollut Bull 50:553–559Google Scholar
  43. Sánchez-García L, Cato I, Gustafsson Ö (2010) Evaluation of the influence of black carbon on the distribution of PAHs in sediments from along the entire Swedish continental shelf. Mar Chem 119:44–51Google Scholar
  44. Sany SBT, Hashim R, Salleh A, Rezayi M, Mehdinia A, Safari O (2014) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediment of Klang Strait, Malaysia: distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources. PLoS ONE 9(4):e94907Google Scholar
  45. Savinov VM, Savinova TN, Matishov GG, Dahle S, Næc K (2003) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorines (OCs) in bottom sediments of the Guba Pechenga, Barents Sea, Russia. Sci Total Environ 306:39–56Google Scholar
  46. Siddiquee NA, Parween S, Quddus MMA, Barua P (2012) Heavy metal pollution in sediments at ship breaking area of Bangladesh. In: Subramanian V (ed) Coastal environments: focus on Asian regions. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 78–87Google Scholar
  47. Sprovieri M, Feo ML, Prevedello L, Manta DS, Sammartino S, Tamburrino S, Marsella E (2007) Heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments of the Naples harbor (southern Italy). Chemosphere 67:998–1009Google Scholar
  48. Suess MJ (1976) The environmental load and cycle of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Sci Total Environ 6:239–250Google Scholar
  49. Sun RX, Lin Q, Ke CL, Du FY, Gu YG, Cao K, Luo XJ, Mai BX (2016) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments and marine organisms from the Daya Bay, South China. Mar Pollut Bull 103(1–2):325–332Google Scholar
  50. Tian YZ, Shi GL, Liu GR, Guo CS, Peng X, Xu J, Zhang Y, Feng YC (2014) Source contributions and spatiotemporal characteristics of PAHs in sediments: using three-way source apportionment approach. Environ Toxicol Chem 33(8):1747–1753Google Scholar
  51. Tobiszewski M, Namiesnik J (2012) PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources. Environ Pollut 162:110–119Google Scholar
  52. Ünlü S, Alpar B (2006) Distribution and sources of hydrocarbons in surface sediments of Gemlik Bay (Marmara Sea, Turkey). Chemosphere 65:764–777Google Scholar
  53. USEPA (1993) Provisional guidance for quantitative risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, EPA/600/R-93/089. Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  54. Viguri J, Verde J, Irabien A (2002) Environmental assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Santander Bay, Northern Spain. Chemosphere 48:157–165Google Scholar
  55. Wang XC, Zhang YX, Chen RF (2001) Distribution and partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different size fractions in sediments from Boston Harbor, United States. Mar Pollut Bull 2:1139–1149Google Scholar
  56. Wang Q, Liu M, Yu YP, Du FF, Wang X (2014) Black carbon in soils from different land use areas of Shanghai, China: level, sources and relationship with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Appl Geochem 47:36–43Google Scholar
  57. Wang C, Zou X, Zhao Y, Li B, Song Q, Li Y, Yu W (2016) Distribution, sources, and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the water and suspended sediments from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(17):17158–17170Google Scholar
  58. World Bank (2010) The ship breaking and recycling industry in Bangladesh and Pakistan. World Bank, Washington. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/872281468114238957/The-ship-breaking-and-recycling-industry-in-Bangladesh-and-Pakistan. Accessed 20 Oct 2016
  59. Xue BM, Wang YH, Zhang D, Zhang JL, Leng B, Huang WY, Chen ZH (2013) Concentration, distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from Lijiang River, South China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 90:446–450Google Scholar
  60. Yim UH, Hong SH, Ha SY, Han GM, An JG, Kim NS, Lim DI, Choi HW, Shim WJ (2014) Source-and region-specific distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from Jinhae Bay, Korea. Sci Total Environ 470:1485–1493Google Scholar
  61. Yunker MB, Macdonald RW, Vingarzan R, Mitchell RH, Goyette D, Sylvestre S (2002) PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Org Geochem 33(4):489–515Google Scholar
  62. Zhang Y, Shi GL, Guo CS, Xu J, Tian YZ, Feng YC, Wang YQ (2012) Seasonal variations of concentrations, profiles and possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from Taihu Lake, China. J Soils Sedim 12:933–941Google Scholar
  63. Zhang D, Liu J, Yin P, Lin X, Liu N, Meng X (2016) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Coast of Weihai, China: spatial distribution, sources and ecotoxicological risks. Mar Pollut Bull 109(1):643–649Google Scholar
  64. Zheng B, Wang L, Lei K, Nan B (2016) Distribution and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River estuary and the adjacent area, China. Chemosphere 149:91–100Google Scholar
  65. Zhou JL, Maskaoui K (2003) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and surface sediments from Daya Bay, China. Environ Pollut 121(2):269–281Google Scholar
  66. Zuloaga O, Prieto A, Ahmed K, Sarkar SK, Bhattacharya A, Chatterjee M, Bhattacharya BD, Satpathy KK (2013) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in recent sediments of Sundarban mangrove wetland of India and Bangladesh: a comparative approach. Environ Earth Sci 68:355–367Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Environment and Information SciencesYokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of FisheriesUniversity of DhakaDhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.Department of Oceanography, Earth and Environmental Science FacultyUniversity of DhakaDhakaBangladesh
  4. 4.Faculty of Environment and Information SciencesYokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations