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Fractionation, Mobility, and Contamination Assessment of Potentially Toxic Metals in Urban Soils in Four Industrial Serbian Cities

  • Dragana Pavlović
  • Marija Pavlović
  • Dragan Čakmak
  • Olga Kostić
  • Snežana Jarić
  • Sanja Sakan
  • Dragana Đorđević
  • Miroslava Mitrović
  • Ivan Gržetić
  • Pavle Pavlović
Article

Abstract

The main soil properties, concentrations of selected elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and the chemical speciation of each element were determined in urban soil samples taken from urban parks in four Serbian cities (Belgrade, Pančevo, Obrenovac, and Smederevo) exposed to different sources of pollution. Pollution indices (PI, PIN) and factors (MF, ICF, GCF) also were evaluated. The study revealed As and Cd concentrations below the detection limit, whereas the content of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn at some sites exceeded the limits established by local regulations, as well as the background values, which may represent an environmental threat. Sequential extraction results show that Fe, Cr, Cu, and Ni were predominantly in the residual fraction at most sites; however, Ni from Pančevo and Smederevo also was bound to the reducible fraction. The presence of Pb at all sites and Zn in Smederevo and Belgrade was mainly associated with the reducible and residual fractions. The highest Mn content was found in the reducible fraction, followed by the acid soluble/exchangeable and residual fractions. Based on the obtained indices and factors, the overall soil status at the selected sampling sites was found to range from the warning limit to slightly polluted, whereby Smederevo had the highest risk, and Pančevo and the control site the lowest risk of contamination by toxic metals.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Grant No. 173018).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dragana Pavlović
    • 1
  • Marija Pavlović
    • 1
  • Dragan Čakmak
    • 1
  • Olga Kostić
    • 1
  • Snežana Jarić
    • 1
  • Sanja Sakan
    • 2
  • Dragana Đorđević
    • 2
  • Miroslava Mitrović
    • 1
  • Ivan Gržetić
    • 3
  • Pavle Pavlović
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology, Institute for Biological Research ‘Siniša Stanković’University of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Institute of Chemistry, Technology and MetallurgyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

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