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Chemical Constituents of Carbonaceous and Nitrogen Aerosols over Thumba Region, Trivandrum, India

  • Prashant HegdeEmail author
  • Kimitaka Kawamura
Article

Abstract

Aerosol filter samples collected at a tropical coastal site Thumba over Indian region were analysed for water-soluble ions, total carbon and nitrogen, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble organic carbon/nitrogen and their sources for different seasons of the year. For the entire study period, the order of abundance of ions showed the dominance of secondary ions, such as SO4 2−, NO3 , and NH4 +. On average, Mg2+ (56%), K+ (11%), SO4 2− (8.8%), and Ca2+ (8.1%) contributions were from maritime influence. There was significant chloride depletion due to enhanced levels of inorganic acids, such as SO4 2− and NO3 . Total carbon contributed 21% of the aerosol total suspended particulate matter in which 85% is organic carbon. Primary combustion-generated carbonaceous aerosols contributed 41% of aerosol mass for the entire study period. High average ratios of OC/EC (5.5 ± 1.8) and WSOC/OC (0.38 ± 0.11) suggest that organic aerosols are predominantly comprised of secondary species. In our samples, major fraction (89 ± 9%) was found to be inorganic nitrate in total nitrogen (TN). Good correlations (R 2 ≥ 0.82) were observed between TN with NO3 plus NH4 +, indicating that nitrate and ammonium ions account for a significant portion of TN. The temporal variations in the specific carbonaceous aerosols and air mass trajectories demonstrated that several pollutants and/or their precursor compounds are likely transported from north western India and the oceanic regions.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was partly supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through grant-in-aid Nos. 19204055 and 24221001. We also appreciate the financial support of a JSPS fellowship to P. H., during which the author was on sabbatical from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Government of India.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Space Physics LaboratoryVikram Sarabhai Space CentreTrivandrumIndia
  2. 2.Institute of Low Temperature ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  3. 3.Chubu Institute for Advanced StudiesChubu UniversityKasugaiJapan

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