Distribution, Sources, and Potential Ecotoxicological Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments from Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina
- 307 Downloads
Thirty-four surface sediment samples were collected from Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina, to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination and ecotoxicity risk by applying sediment-quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors (TEQ). Total concentrations of 17 parent PAHs, including the 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs, were measured using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and their levels ranged from 19.7 to 30,054.5 ng/g dry weight. The greatest values were found near the urban/industrial core and decreasing as the distance from that site increased. Molecular ratios determined mixed sources of PAHs with a slight imposition of pyrolitic over the petrogenic inputs. The ecotoxicological evaluation, based on the SQG model, showed that some of the individual PAHs were in excess of the effects range low (ERL) and the effects range median’s threshold; then, predicted occasional (ERL) and frequent adverse effects over the surrounding biota at the area of study were determined. Total PAH levels were expressed as benzo-a-pyrene TEQ and compared with literature data.
KeywordsPAHs United States Environmental Protection Agency Total PAHs Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentration Total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
The authors thanks the staff of the IADO IV research vessel for logistics and cooperation on board. This research was supported by a doctoral grant funded by the National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET-Argentina) and was part of the doctoral thesis of A. L. Oliva. This study was funded through research grants by CONICET (Grant No. PIP D-738 2011) and National Agency for Promotion of Science and Technology-ANCPCyT (Grant No. PICT 2010-1302). Finally, we thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments, which contributed greatly to the improvement of the paper.
- Arias AH, Marcovecchio JE, Freije RH, Ponce-Velez G, Vazquez-Botello A (2010b). Análisis de fuentes y toxicidad equivalente de sedimentos contaminados con PAHs en el Estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Hidrobiológica 20:41–56Google Scholar
- Arias AH, Marcovecchio JE, Vazquez-Botello A, Diaz G (2010c) Accumulation of indicators polychlorinated biphenyls (iPCBs) in sediments of the navigation channel, harbours and industrial area of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. III Congreso Argentino de la Sociedad de Toxicologia y Química Ambiental SETACGoogle Scholar
- Freije RH, Spetter CV, Marcovecchio JE, Popovich CA, Botte SE, Negrin V, Arias A, Delucchi F, Asteasuain RO (2008) Water chemistry and nutrients in the Bahia Blanca Estuary. In: Neves R, Baretta J y Mateus M (eds) Perspectives on integrated coastal zone management in South America. IST Press, Scientific Publishers, Lisboa, pp. 243–256Google Scholar
- Neff JM (1979) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment. Applied Science Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Perillo GME, Piccolo MC (1991) Tidal response in the Bahía Blanca estuary. J Coast Res 7:437–449Google Scholar
- Readman JW, Mantoura RFC, Rhead MM (1987) A record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution obtained from accreting sediments of the Tamar estuary, UK: evidence for non-equilibrium behaviour of PAH. Sci total Environ 66:73–94Google Scholar
- USEPA (1993) Provisional guidance for quantitative risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. EPA/600/R-93/089Google Scholar
- World Conservation Congress (2012). https://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/resolutions_and_recommendations_2012.pdf. Accessed June 2 2015