Potential Use of Low-Cost Lignocellulosic Waste for the Removal of Direct Violet 51 from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium and Breakthrough Studies

  • Sana SadafEmail author
  • Haq Nawaz Bhatti
  • Sana Nausheen
  • Saima Noreen


An efficient biosorbent, sugarcane bagasse was used in native, HCl-treated, and Na-alginate immobilized form for the removal of Direct Violet 51 dye from aqueous solutions. Batch study was performed to optimize important process parameters, such as pH, contact time, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and temperature. Removal of Direct Violet 51 was found to be favorable at pH 2 with the biosorbent dose of 0.05 g. Biosorption process was found to be exothermic in nature. Maximum dye biosorption (39.6 mg/g) was achieved by using HCl-treated biomass. The pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models showed best fitness to the experimental data. Thermodynamic study was also performed to determine the feasibility of biosorption process. Continuous mode study was performed to optimize the important process parameters, such as bed height, flow rate, and initial dye concentration for maximum removal of Direct Violet 51 dye. The higher bed height, low flow rate, and high initial dye concentration were found to be the better conditions for maximum dye biosorption (17.28 mg/g). The linearized form of the Thomas model equation fitted well to the experimental data. The bed depth service time model was used to express the effect of bed height on breakthrough curves. Characterization of biosorbent was performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The FT-IR spectral analyses showed the involvement of hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl groups in biosorption process. These results indicated that sugarcane bagasse biomass could be used as a novel biosorbent for the removal of Direct Violet 51 dye from real textile and related industries.


Biosorption Sugarcane Bagasse Intraparticle Diffusion Biosorbents Biosorption Capacity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are thankful to Greater Education Commission of Pakistan for financial assistance under Project No. 20-159/R7D/09/1841 and the Indigenous Ph.D. Fellowship Program.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sana Sadaf
    • 1
    Email author
  • Haq Nawaz Bhatti
    • 1
  • Sana Nausheen
    • 1
  • Saima Noreen
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

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