Geographic Information System-Based Source Estimation of Copper Pollution in Lake Itezhi-tezhi and Metal-Accumulation Profiles in Oreochromis spp. from Both Field and Laboratory Studies

  • Shouta M. M. Nakayama
  • Yoshinori Ikenaka
  • Kaampwe Muzandu
  • Kennedy Choongo
  • John Yabe
  • Taro Muroya
  • Shigeho Ijiri
  • Masao Minagawa
  • Takashi Umemura
  • Mayumi Ishizuka
Article

Abstract

The Copperbelt region, upstream of the Kafue River, including Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT), in Zambia has extensive copper (Cu) mines. In our field study, geographic information system analysis in lake sediment indicated that the northern part of the lake, i.e., the Copperbelt region, could be the source of Cu pollution. Concentrations of Cu in stomach contents between fish species were not significantly different. However, Oreochromis spp. liver showed significantly greater Cu concentrations than those in other fish species. Log liver [Cu], standard length, and nitrogen stable isotope ratio were positively correlated only in Oreochromis spp. In the laboratory study, O. niloticus and O. latipes were exposed to Cu for 4 days, and recovery phases ≤28 days were examined. O. niloticus showed significantly greater concentrations of Cu compared with O. latipes at all sampling points. Significantly greater concentrations of Hg in Schilbe intermedius liver than for other fish species were observed, whereas O. macrochir showed significantly greater concentrations of cadmium. In conclusion, the northern part of the lake could be the source of Cu pollution in Lake ITT. Diet may not be the reason for high Cu accumulation in Oreochromis spp. Results from both field and laboratory studies imply that Oreochromis spp. contain high concentrations of Cu under normal physiological conditions.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan awarded to M. Ishizuka (Grant Nos. 24248056 and 24405004) and Y. Ikenaka (Grant No. 23710038); a Research Fellowship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science grant-in-aid awarded to S. Nakayama (Grant No. 2403000402); and the foundation of JSPS Core to Core Program (AA Science Platforms). We acknowledge the financial support from The Naito Foundation and Sompo Japan Environment Foundation. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Peter Mambwe Chiwala, district veterinary officer, and the Department of Fisheries for the Itezhei-tezhi district. We also thank A. Agui for assistance with stable isotope ratio analysis.

Supplementary material

244_2012_9802_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 3146 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shouta M. M. Nakayama
    • 1
  • Yoshinori Ikenaka
    • 1
  • Kaampwe Muzandu
    • 2
  • Kennedy Choongo
    • 2
  • John Yabe
    • 3
  • Taro Muroya
    • 1
  • Shigeho Ijiri
    • 4
  • Masao Minagawa
    • 5
  • Takashi Umemura
    • 3
  • Mayumi Ishizuka
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of ZambiaLusakaZambia
  3. 3.Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Graduate School of Veterinary MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  4. 4.Faculty of Fisheries SciencesHokkaido UniversityHakodateJapan
  5. 5.Research Faculty of Environmental Earth ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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