Toxicity of Polyfluorinated and Perfluorinated Compounds to Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Green Algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata)

  • Guanghui Ding
  • Marja Wouterse
  • Rob Baerselman
  • Willie J. G. M. PeijnenburgEmail author


Recently, polyfluorinated and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been detected in most surface waters around the world. Because some PFCs are persistent and tend to accumulate in surface waters, their potential adverse effects to aquatic organisms have received increasing attention. Nevertheless, currently available toxicity information is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity effects of seven PFCs on root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and photosynthesis of green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). It was found that the toxicity profiles of both species tested were similar and had good relations with the fluorinated carbon-chain length of the PFCs investigated. One of the compounds tested, perfluorobutanoic acid, was found to be more toxic than expected in the algae test, which may be related with acidification of the test solution. It was concluded that because short-chained PFCs are becoming the predominant PFC pollutants in surface waters, their long-term toxicity and mixture toxicity with other PFCs should be studied in greater detail.


Root Elongation QSAR Model Mixture Toxicity Scenedesmus Obliquus Lettuce Seed 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was funded by the FP7 project CADASTER (Grant No. FP7-ENV-2007-1-212668) and the fundamental research funds for the central universities of China (Grant No. DLMU 2011QN053).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guanghui Ding
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marja Wouterse
    • 2
  • Rob Baerselman
    • 2
  • Willie J. G. M. Peijnenburg
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime UniversityDalianPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Laboratory for Ecological Risk AssessmentNational Institute of Public Health and the EnvironmentBilthovenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institute of Environmental SciencesFaculty of Science, Leiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

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