Toxicity of Polyfluorinated and Perfluorinated Compounds to Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Green Algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata)

  • Guanghui Ding
  • Marja Wouterse
  • Rob Baerselman
  • Willie J. G. M. Peijnenburg
Article

Abstract

Recently, polyfluorinated and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been detected in most surface waters around the world. Because some PFCs are persistent and tend to accumulate in surface waters, their potential adverse effects to aquatic organisms have received increasing attention. Nevertheless, currently available toxicity information is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity effects of seven PFCs on root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and photosynthesis of green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). It was found that the toxicity profiles of both species tested were similar and had good relations with the fluorinated carbon-chain length of the PFCs investigated. One of the compounds tested, perfluorobutanoic acid, was found to be more toxic than expected in the algae test, which may be related with acidification of the test solution. It was concluded that because short-chained PFCs are becoming the predominant PFC pollutants in surface waters, their long-term toxicity and mixture toxicity with other PFCs should be studied in greater detail.

References

  1. Ahrens L, Plassmann M, Xie Z, Ebinghaus R (2009) Determination of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in water and suspended particulate matter in the river Elbe and North Sea, Germany. Front Environ Sci Eng China 3:152–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhhatarai B, Gramatica P (2010) Per- and polyfluoro toxicity (LC50 inhalation) study in rat and mouse using QSAR modeling. Chem Res Toxicol 23:528–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boudreau TM, Sibley PK, Mabury SA, Muir DCG, Solomon KR (2003) Laboratory evaluation of the toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlorella vulgaris, Lemna gibba, Daphnia magna, and Daphnia pulicaria. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 44:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Colombo I, de Wolf W, Thompson RS, Farray DG, Hoke RA, L’Haridon JL (2008) Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) to freshwater organisms. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe 71:749–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ding GH, Li X, Zhang F, Chen JW, Huang LP, Qiao XL (2009) Mechanism-based quantitative structure-activity relationships on toxicity of selected herbicides to Chlorella vulgaris and Raphidocelis subcapitata. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83:520–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dreyer A, Weinberg I, Temme C, Ebinghaus R (2009) Polyfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of the Atlantic and Southern Oceans: evidence for a global distribution. Environ Sci Technol 43:6507–6514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Frankart C, Eullaffroy P, Vernet G (2003) Comparative effects of four herbicides on non-photochemical fluorescence quenching in Lemna minor. Environ Exp Bot 49:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Frömel T, Knepper TP (2010) Biodegradation of fluorinated alkyl substances. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 208:161–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fromme H, Tittlemier SA, Volkel W, Wilhelm M, Twardella D (2009) Perfluorinated compounds—exposure assessment for the general population in western countries. Int J Hyg Environ Health 212:239–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Giesy JP, Kannan K (2002) Perfluorochemical surfactants in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 36:146A–152ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hagenaars A, Vergauwen L, De Coen W, Knapen D (2011) Structure–activity relationship assessment of four perfluorinated chemicals using a prolonged zebrafish early life stage test. Chemosphere 82:764–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanson ML, Small J, Sibley PK, Boudreau T, Brain RA, Mabury SA et al (2005a) Microcosm evaluation of the fate, toxicity and risk to aquatic macrophytes from perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 49:307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hanson ML, Sibley PK, Brain RA, Mabury SA, Solomon KR (2005b) Microcosm evaluation of the toxicity and risk to aquatic macrophytes from perfluorooctane sulfonic acid. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 48:329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Houde M, Martin JW, Letcher RJ, Solomon KR, Muir DCG (2006) Biological monitoring of polyfluoroalkyl substances: a review. Environ Sci Technol 40:3463–3473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Juneau P, El Berdey A, Popovic R (2002) PAM fluorometry in the determination of the sensitivity of Chlorella vulgaris, Selenastrum capricornutum, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to copper. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 42:155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kannan K, Tao L, Sinclair E, Pastva SD, Jude DJ, Giesy JP (2005) Perfluorinated compounds in aquatic organisms at various trophic levels in a Great Lakes food chain. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 48:559–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kissa E (2001) Fluorinated surfactants and repellants, 2nd edn. Marcel Decker, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  18. Latała A, Nędzi M, Stepnowski P (2009) Acute toxicity assessment of perfluorinated carboxylic acids towards the Baltic microalgae. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 28:167–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Seed J (2007) Perfluoroalkyl acids: a review of monitoring and toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 99:366–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lehmler H (2005) Synthesis of environmentally relevant fluorinated surfactants: a review. Chemosphere 58:1471–1496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li MH (2009) Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates. Environ Toxicol 24:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu W, Chen S, Quan X, Jin YH (2008) Toxic effect of serial perfluorosulfonic and perfluorocarboxylic acids on the membrane system of a freshwater alga measured by flow cytometry. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:1597–1604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Möller A, Ahrens L, Surm R, Westerveld J, Van der Wielen F, Ebinghaus R et al (2010) Distribution and sources of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the river Rhine watershed. Environ Pollut 158:3243–3250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moroi Y, Yano H, Shibata O, Yonemitsu T (2001) Determination of acidity constants of perfluoroalkanoic acids. Bull Chem Soc Jpn 74:667–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2002) Hazard assessment of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its salts. ENV/JM/RD(2002)17/FINAL. Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and the Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides, and Biotechnology, Environment Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  26. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2006) OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals / section 2: effects on biotic systems test no. 208: Terrestrial plant test: Seedling emergence and seedling growth testGoogle Scholar
  27. Paul AG, Jones KC, Sweetman AJ (2009) A first global production, emission, and environmental inventory for perfluorooctane sulfonate. Environ Sci Technol 43:386–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Phillips MM, Dinglasan-Panlilio MJ, Mabury SA, Solomon KR, Sibley PK (2007) Fluorotelomer acids are more toxic than perfluorinated acids. Environ Sci Technol 41:7159–7163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Prevedouros K, Cousins IT, Buck RC, Korzeniowski SH (2006) Sources, fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylates. Environ Sci Technol 40:32–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rayne S, Forest K (2009) Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids: a critical review of physicochemical properties, levels and patterns in waters and wastewaters, and treatment methods. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 44:1145–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Renner R (2003) Concerns over common perfluorinated surfactant. Environ Sci Technol 37:201A–202ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schreiber U, Bilger W, Neubauer C (1994) Chlorophyll fluorescence as a nonintrusive indicator for rapid assessment of in vivo photosynthesis. In: Schulze ED, Caldwell MM (eds) Ecophysiology of photosynthesis. Springer, Berlin, pp 49–69Google Scholar
  33. Schreiber U, Quayle P, Schmidt S, Escher BI, Mueller JF (2007) Methodology and evaluation of a highly sensitive algae toxicity test based on multiwell chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Biosens Bioelectron 22:2554–2563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schultz M, Barofsky D, Field J (2003) Fluorinated alkyl surfactants. Environ Eng Sci 20:487–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Taniyasu S, Kannan K, Yeung LW, Kwok KY, Lam PKS, Yamashita N (2008) Analysis of trifluoroacetic acid and other short-chain perfluorinated acids (C2–C4) in precipitation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: comparison to patterns of long-chain perfluorinated acids (C5-C18). Anal Chim Acta 619:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. United States Environmental Protection Agency (1996) Ecological effects test guidelines (OPPTS 850.4200): seed germination/root elongation toxicity test. EPA 712-C-96-154. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Beusekom SAM, Admiraal W, Sterkenburg A, De Zwart D (1999) ECO notitie 98/09. Handleiding PAM-Test (in dutch). National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  38. Van der Grinten E, Pikkemaat MG, van den Brandhof EJ, Stroomberg GJ, Kraak MH (2010) Comparing the sensitivity of algal, cyanobacterial and bacterial bioassays to different groups of antibiotics. Chemosphere 80:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Verweij W, Durand, AM, Maas JL, Van der Grinten E (2009) PAM test: acute effects on photosynthesis in algae. In protocols belonging to the report “Toxicity measurements in concentrated water samples.” National Institute for Public Health and the Environment report 607013011/2009, pp 41–51Google Scholar
  40. Yamashita N, Kannan K, Taniyasu S, Horii Y, Petrick G, Gamo T (2005) A global survey of perfluorinated acids in oceans. Mar Pollut Bull 51:658–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guanghui Ding
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marja Wouterse
    • 2
  • Rob Baerselman
    • 2
  • Willie J. G. M. Peijnenburg
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime UniversityDalianPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Laboratory for Ecological Risk AssessmentNational Institute of Public Health and the EnvironmentBilthovenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institute of Environmental SciencesFaculty of Science, Leiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations