Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study: Monitoring and Elimination of Bioaccumulated Toxic Elements

  • Stephen J. Genuis
  • Detlef Birkholz
  • Ilia Rodushkin
  • Sanjay Beesoon
Article

Abstract

There is limited understanding of the toxicokinetics of bioaccumulated toxic elements and their methods of excretion from the human body. This study was designed to assess the concentration of various toxic elements in three body fluids: blood, urine and sweat. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with various health problems) and analyzed for approximately 120 various compounds, including toxic elements. Toxic elements were found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. Serum levels for most metals and metalloids were comparable with those found in other studies in the scientific literature. Many toxic elements appeared to be preferentially excreted through sweat. Presumably stored in tissues, some toxic elements readily identified in the perspiration of some participants were not found in their serum. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of many toxic elements from the human body. Biomonitoring for toxic elements through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of such toxicants. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of toxic elements in humans.

References

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry (2008) Toxicological profile of Cadmium. Available via http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp.asp?id=48&tid=15. Accessed 14 Oct 2010
  2. Aschner M, Aschner JL (1991) Manganese neurotoxicity: cellular effects and blood-brain barrier transport. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 15(3):333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Augsten K, Stein G (1988) Scanning electron-microscopy and x-ray-microanalysis investigation of aluminum deposition in samples from hemodialyzed patients. Trace Elements Med 5(2):55–59Google Scholar
  4. Barany E, Bergdahl IA, Bratteby LE, Lundh T, Samuelson G, Schutz A, et al (2002) Trace element levels in whole blood and serum from Swedish adolescents. Sci Total Environ 286:129–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becaria A, Campbell A, Bondy SC (2002) Aluminum as a toxicant. Toxicol Ind Health 18(7):309–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bigham M, Copes R, Srour L (2002) Exposure to thimerosal in vaccines used in Canadian infant immunization programs, with respect to risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Can Commun Dis Rep 28:69–80Google Scholar
  7. Buechner P, Neufeld S, Mausberg B (2004) Metallic lunch: an analysis of heavy metals in the Canadian diet. Environ Def Can, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  8. Butterworth RF, Spahr L, Fontaine S, Layrargues GP (1995) Manganese toxicity, dopaminergic dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis 10(4):259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Canfield RL, Henderson CR Jr, Cory-Slechta DA, Cox C, Jusko TA, Lanphear BP (2003) Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 micrograms per deciliter. N Engl J Med 348(16):1517–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Centers for Disease Control, Department of Health and Human Services. Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (2009) CDC, Atlanta, GA, pp 1–529. Available via http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/pdf/FourthReport.pdf. Accessed 18 Jan 2009
  11. Chakraborti D, Ghorai SK, Das B, Pal A, Nayak B, Shah BA (2009) Arsenic exposure through groundwater to the rural and urban population in the Allahabad-Kanpur track in the upper Ganga plain. J Environ Monit 11(8):1455–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen Y, Parvez F, Gamble M, Islam T, Ahmed A, Argos M, et al (2009) Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 239:184–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clark CS, Rampal KG, Thuppil V, Roda SM, Succop P, Menrath W, et al (2009) Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America. Environ Res 109:930–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohn JR, Emmett EA (1978) The excretion of trace metals in human sweat. Ann Clin Lab Sci 8(4):270–275Google Scholar
  15. Corain B, Bombi GG, Tapparo A, Nicolini M, Zatta P, Perazzolo M, et al (1990) Alzheimer’s disease and aluminum toxicology. Environ Health Perspect 89:233–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Counter SA, Buchanan LH (2004) Mercury exposure in children: a review. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 198(2):209–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Darbre PD (2006) Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast. J Appl Toxicol 26(3):191–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eisalo A, Luurila OJ (1988) The Finnish sauna and cardiovascular diseases. Ann Clin Res 20(4):267–270Google Scholar
  19. Emsley J (2001) Nature’s building block: an A-Z guide to the elements. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Environmental Working Group (2005) Body burden―The pollution in newborns: A benchmark investigation of industrial chemicals, pollutants and pesticides in umbilical cord blood (Executive Summary) July 14, 2005. Available via http://ewg.org/reports/bodyburden2/execsumm.php. Accessed 16 Sep 2005
  21. Ewen C, Anagnostopoulou MA, Ward NI (2009) Monitoring of heavy metal levels in roadside dusts of Thessaloniki, Greece, in relation to motor vehicle traffic density and flow. Environ Monit Assess 157(1–4):483–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Falk B, Bar-Or O, Calvert R, MacDougall JD (1992) Sweat gland response to exercise in the heat among pre-, mid-, and late-pubertal boys. Med Sci Sports Exerc 24(3):313–319Google Scholar
  23. Forrer R, Gautschi K, Lutz H (2001) Simultaneous measurement of the trace elements Al, As, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn in human serum and their reference ranges by ICP-MS. Biol Trace Elem Res 80(1):77–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fowler BA (1993) Mechanisms of kidney cell injury from metals. Environ Health Perspect 100:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fraser-Moodie A (2003) Mad as a hatter. Emerg Med J 20(6):568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gabos S, Zemanek M, Cheperdak L, Kinniburgh D, Lee B, Hrudey S, et al (2005) Chemical biomonitoring in serum of pregnant women in Alberta. Alberta Health and Wellness, Public Health DivisionGoogle Scholar
  27. Galle P, Giudicelli CP, Nebout T, Baglin A, Fries D (1987) Ultrastructural localization of aluminum in hepatocytes of hemodialyzed patients. Ann Pathol 7(3):163–170Google Scholar
  28. Genuis SJ (2006a) Health issues and the environment―an emerging paradigm for providers of obstetrical and gynecological healthcare. Human Reprod 21:2201–2208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Genuis SJ (2006b) The chemical erosion of human health: adverse environmental exposure and in utero pollution―determinants of congenital disorders and chronic disease. J Perinat Med 34:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Genuis SJ (2008) Toxic causes of mental illness are overlooked. Neurotoxicology 29(6):1147–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Genuis SJ (2010) Elimination of persistent toxicants from the human body. Hum Exp Toxicol. doi:10.1177/0960327110368417
  32. Gerber GB, Leonard A, Hantson P (2002) Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity of manganese compounds. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 42(1):25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Goullé JP, Mahieu L, Castermant J, Neveu N, Bonneau L, Laine G, et al (2005) Metal and metalloid multi-elementary ICP-MS validation in whole blood, plasma, urine and hair. Reference values. Forensic Sci Int 153:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goyer RA (1993) Lead toxicity: current concerns. Environ Health Perspect 100:177–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ (2006) Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Lancet 368(9553):2167–2178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Guzzi G, Grandi M, Cattaneo C, Calza S, Minoia C, Ronchi A, et al (2006) Dental amalgam and mercury levels in autopsy tissues: food for thought. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 27:42–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hannuksela ML, Ellahham S (2001) Benefits and risks of sauna bathing. Am J Med 110(2):118–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Health C (2007) Health Canada advises specific groups to limit their consumption of canned albacore tuna. 2007. Available via http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/2007/2007_14_e.html. Accessed 27 July 2007
  39. Hohnadel D, Sunderman F, Nechay M, Mcneely M (1973) Excretion of nickel, copper, zinc and lead in sweat of healthy subjects during sauna bathing. Clin Chem 19(6):1288–1292Google Scholar
  40. Hoshi A, Watanabe H, Kobayashi M, Chiba M, Inaba Y, Kimura N, et al (2001) Concentrations of trace elements in sweat during sauna bathing. Tohoku J Exp Med 195:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hunter D, Bomford RR, Russell DS (1940) Poisoning by methyl mercury compound. Qual J Med 9:193–215Google Scholar
  42. Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec (2004) Étude sur l’établissement de valeurs de référence d’éléments traces et de métaux dans le sang, le sérum, et l’urine de la population de la grande région de Québec. Institut National de Santé Publique du QuébecGoogle Scholar
  43. Jandacek RJ, Anderson N, Liu M, Zheng S, Yang Q, Tso P (2005) Effects of yo-yo diet, caloric restriction, and olestra on tissue distribution of hexachlorobenzene. Am J Physiol 288(2):G292–G299Google Scholar
  44. Jarup L, Akesson A (2009) Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238(3):201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kerr DN, Ward MK, Ellis HA, Simpson W, Parkinson IS (1992) Aluminium intoxication in renal disease. Ciba Found Symp 169:123–141Google Scholar
  46. Kukkonen-Harjula K, Kauppinen K (2006) Health effects and risks of sauna bathing. Int J Circumpolar Health 65(3):195–205Google Scholar
  47. Langard S (1990) One hundred years of chromium and cancer: a review of epidemiological evidence and selected case reports. Am J Ind Med 17(2):189–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Langard S, Vigander T (1983) Occurrence of lung cancer in workers producing chromium pigments. Br J Ind Med 40(1):71–74Google Scholar
  49. Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J, Yolton K, Baghurst P, Bellinger DC, et al (2005) Low-level environmental lead exposure and children’s intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect 113:894–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Leppaluoto J (1988) Human thermoregulation in sauna. Ann Clin Res 20(4):240–243Google Scholar
  51. Liang F, Li Y, Zhang G, Tan M, Lin J, Liu W, et al (2010) Total and speciated arsenic levels in rice from China. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 27:810–816Google Scholar
  52. Lin YS, Caffrey JL, Chang MH, Dowling N, Lin JW (2010) Cigarette smoking, cadmium exposure, and zinc intake on obstructive lung disorder. Respir Res 11(1):53Google Scholar
  53. Menke A, Muntner P, Silbergeld EK, Platz EA, Guallar E (2009) Cadmium levels in urine and mortality among US adults. Environ Health Perspect 117(2):190–196Google Scholar
  54. Michalke B, Halbach S, Nischwitz V (2007) Speciation and toxicological relevance of manganese in humans. J Environ Monit 9(7):650–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Michalke B, Halbach S, Nischwitz V (2009) JEM spotlight: metal speciation related to neurotoxicity in humans. J Environ Monit 11(5):939–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nayak P, Chatterjee AK (2001) Differential responses of certain brain phosphoesterases to aluminium in dietary protein adequacy and inadequacy. Food Chem Toxicol 39(6):587–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Needleman HL, Gunnoe C, Leviton A, Reed R, Peresie H, Maher C, et al (1979) Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels. N Engl J Med 300:689–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Needleman HL, Riess JA, Tobin MJ, Biesecker GE, Greenhouse JB (1996) Bone lead levels and delinquent behavior. JAMA 275(5):363–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nevin R (2000) How lead exposure relates to temporal changes in IQ, violent crime, and unwed pregnancy. Environ Res 83(1):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nevin R (2007) Understanding international crime trends: the legacy of preschool lead exposure. Environ Res 104(3):315–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Oken E, Bellinger DC (2008) Fish consumption, methylmercury and child neurodevelopment. Curr Opin Pediatr 20(2):178–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pais I, Jones J (1997) The handbook of trace elements. St. Lucie Press, Boca Raton, FL, p 60Google Scholar
  63. Parpalei IA, Prokof’eva LG, Obertas VG (1991) The use of the sauna for disease prevention in the workers of enterprises with chemical and physical occupational hazards. Vrach Delo 5:93–95Google Scholar
  64. Pasha Q, Malik SA, Shaheen N, Shah MH (2010) Investigation of trace metals in the blood plasma and scalp hair of gastrointestinal cancer patients in comparison with controls. Clin Chim Acta 411(7–8):531–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rajwanshi P, Singh V, Gupta MK, Kumari V, Shrivastav R, Ramanamurthy M, et al (1997) Studies on aluminium leaching from cookware in tea and coffee and estimation of aluminium content in toothpaste, baking powder and paan masala. Sci Total Environ 193:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rao MV, Avani G (2004) Arsenic induced free radical toxicity in brain of mice. Indian J Exp Biol 42(5):495–498Google Scholar
  67. Rea WJ (1997) Chemical sensitivity, vol. 4. Tools of diagnosis and methods of treatment. Lewis, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  68. Rodushkin I, Odman F (2001) Analysis of biological samples by double focusing ICP-MS. Transworld research network. Recent Dev Pure Appl Anal Chem 5:51–66Google Scholar
  69. Rodushkin I, Ödman F, Olofsson RS, Axelsson MD (2000) Determination of 60 elements in whole blood by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom 15:937–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rodushkin I, Engstrom E, Stenberg A, Baxter DC (2004) Determination of low-abundance elements at ultra-trace levels in urine and serum by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 380(2):247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rollin HB, Sandanger TM, Hansen L, Channa K, Odland JO (2009a) Concentration of selected persistent organic pollutants in blood from delivering women in South Africa. Sci Total Environ 408(1):146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rollin H, Odland JO, Theodoru P,  Naik I (2009b) Concentrations of toxic metals in blood and cord blood of delivering women from three Indian Ocean coastal communities, South Africa. North-South research collaboration. Epidemiology 20(6):S254–S255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Samanta G, Das D, Mandal BK, Chowdhury TR, Chakraborti D, Pal A, et al (2007) Arsenic in the breast milk of lactating women in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India and its effect on infants. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 42:1815–1825Google Scholar
  74. Schnaas L, Rothenberg SJ, Flores MF, Martinez S, Hernandez C, Osorio E, et al (2006) Reduced intellectual development in children with prenatal lead exposure. Environ Health Perspect 114:791–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schwartz BS, Stewart WF, Bolla KI, Simon PD, Bandeen-Roche K, Gordon PB, et al (2000) Past adult lead exposure is associated with longitudinal decline in cognitive function. Neurology 55:1144–1150Google Scholar
  76. Sears M, Bray R (2008) Toxic metals in Canadians and their environments: Exposures, health effects, and physician and public health management strategies. A scoping review. Clinical Research Grants Awarded in 2008 by the Canadian Institute for Health ResearchGoogle Scholar
  77. Spinelli JJ, Demers PA, Le ND, Friesen MD, Lorenzi MF, Fang R, et al (2006) Cancer risk in aluminum reduction plant workers (Canada). Cancer Causes Control 17:939–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Suwazono Y, Sand S, Vahter M, Filipsson AF, Skerfving S, Lidfeldt J, et al (2006) Benchmark dose for cadmium-induced renal effects in humans. Environ Health Perspect 114:1072–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. The Prague Declaration on Endocrine Disruption—126 Signatories (2005) Meeting for international group of scientists convened in PragueGoogle Scholar
  80. United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) Urinary Heavy Metals, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Available via http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/nhanes2005-2006/lab05_06.htm. Accessed 28 April 2010
  81. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Environmental Protection Agency (2004) What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish. EPA and FDA advice for women who might become pregnant, women who are pregnant, nursing mothers, and young children. Available via http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/admehg3.html. Accessed 9 March 2007
  82. Vahidnia A, van der Voet GB, de Wolff FA (2007) Arsenic neurotoxicity―a review. Hum Exp Toxicol 26(10):823–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Weidenhamer JD (2009) Lead contamination of inexpensive seasonal and holiday products. Sci Total Environ 407(7):2447–2450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. White LD, Cory-Slechta DA, Gilbert ME, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Zawia NH, Virgolini M, et al (2007) New and evolving concepts in the neurotoxicology of lead. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 225:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zatta P, Lucchini R, van Rensburg SJ, Taylor A (2003) The role of metals in neurodegenerative processes: aluminum, manganese, and zinc. Brain Res Bull 1:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen J. Genuis
    • 1
  • Detlef Birkholz
    • 1
  • Ilia Rodushkin
    • 2
  • Sanjay Beesoon
    • 3
  1. 1.University of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Luleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden
  3. 3.Department of Laboratory MedicineUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations