Toxicity of Four Herbicide Formulations with Glyphosate on Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) Tadpoles: B-esterases and Glutathione S-transferase Inhibitors

  • Rafael C. LajmanovichEmail author
  • Andrés M. Attademo
  • Paola M. Peltzer
  • Celina M. Junges
  • Mariana C. Cabagna


In this study, amphibian tadpoles Rhinella arenarum were exposed to different concentrations of Roundup Ultra-Max (ULT), Infosato (INF), Glifoglex, and C-K YUYOS FAV. Tadpoles were exposed to these commercial formulations with glyphosate (CF-GLY) at the following concentrations (acid equivalent [ae]): 0 (control), 1.85, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg ae/L for 6–48 h (short-term). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CbE), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were measured among tadpoles sampled from those treatments that displayed survival rates >85%. Forty-eight-hour LC50 for R. arenarum tadpoles exposed to CF-GLY in the static tests ranged from ULT = 2.42 to FAV = 77.52 mg ae/L. For all CF-GLY, the LC50 values stabilized at 24 h of exposure. Tadpoles exposed to all CF-GLY concentrations at 48 h showed decreases in the activities of AChE (control = 17.50 ± 2.23 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 30 mg ae/L, 71.52%), BChE (control = 6.31 ± 0.86 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 15 mg ae/L, 78.84%), CbE (control = 4.39 ± 0.46 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 15 mg ae/L, 81.18%), and GST (control = 4.86 ± 0.49 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 1.87 mg ae/L, 86.12%). These results indicate that CF-GLY produce a wide range of toxicities and that all enzymatic parameters tested may be good early indicators of herbicide contamination in R. arenarum tadpoles.


Glyphosate AChE Activity Roundup AChE Inhibition BChE Activity 
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We thank Reinier Mann for reviewing a draft of preliminary version of the manuscript; Juan C. Sánchez-Hernández for providing protocols for enzymatic determination; Arturo Kehr for helpful in statistical analysis; and Craig E. Wheelock for the comments on the result of the CbE activity. We also thank two anonymous reviewers who made invaluable comments and suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael C. Lajmanovich
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrés M. Attademo
    • 1
  • Paola M. Peltzer
    • 1
  • Celina M. Junges
    • 1
  • Mariana C. Cabagna
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Biochemistry and Biologic Sciences, National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET)FBCB-UNLSanta FeArgentina

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