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Toxicity of Four Herbicide Formulations with Glyphosate on Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) Tadpoles: B-esterases and Glutathione S-transferase Inhibitors

  • Rafael C. LajmanovichEmail author
  • Andrés M. Attademo
  • Paola M. Peltzer
  • Celina M. Junges
  • Mariana C. Cabagna
Article

Abstract

In this study, amphibian tadpoles Rhinella arenarum were exposed to different concentrations of Roundup Ultra-Max (ULT), Infosato (INF), Glifoglex, and C-K YUYOS FAV. Tadpoles were exposed to these commercial formulations with glyphosate (CF-GLY) at the following concentrations (acid equivalent [ae]): 0 (control), 1.85, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg ae/L for 6–48 h (short-term). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CbE), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were measured among tadpoles sampled from those treatments that displayed survival rates >85%. Forty-eight-hour LC50 for R. arenarum tadpoles exposed to CF-GLY in the static tests ranged from ULT = 2.42 to FAV = 77.52 mg ae/L. For all CF-GLY, the LC50 values stabilized at 24 h of exposure. Tadpoles exposed to all CF-GLY concentrations at 48 h showed decreases in the activities of AChE (control = 17.50 ± 2.23 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 30 mg ae/L, 71.52%), BChE (control = 6.31 ± 0.86 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 15 mg ae/L, 78.84%), CbE (control = 4.39 ± 0.46 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 15 mg ae/L, 81.18%), and GST (control = 4.86 ± 0.49 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 1.87 mg ae/L, 86.12%). These results indicate that CF-GLY produce a wide range of toxicities and that all enzymatic parameters tested may be good early indicators of herbicide contamination in R. arenarum tadpoles.

Keywords

Glyphosate AChE Activity Roundup AChE Inhibition BChE Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Reinier Mann for reviewing a draft of preliminary version of the manuscript; Juan C. Sánchez-Hernández for providing protocols for enzymatic determination; Arturo Kehr for helpful in statistical analysis; and Craig E. Wheelock for the comments on the result of the CbE activity. We also thank two anonymous reviewers who made invaluable comments and suggestions.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael C. Lajmanovich
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrés M. Attademo
    • 1
  • Paola M. Peltzer
    • 1
  • Celina M. Junges
    • 1
  • Mariana C. Cabagna
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Biochemistry and Biologic Sciences, National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET)FBCB-UNLSanta FeArgentina

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