Acute and Chronic Effects of Perfluorobutane Sulfonate (PFBS) on the Mallard and Northern Bobwhite Quail

  • J. L. Newsted
  • Susan A. Beach
  • S. P. Gallagher
  • J. P. Giesy
Article

Abstract

Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) can be a final degradation product of perfluorobutane sulfonyl fluoride (PBSF)-based chemicals. Surfactants based on this chemistry are potential replacements for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-related products and have many potential applications in industrial and commercial processes and applications. To evaluate the potential hazard that PFBS may pose to avian species, acute dietary studies with juvenile mallards and northern bobwhite quail, as well as a quail dietary chronic study of reproduction were conducted. In the acute studies, 10-day-old mallards and quail were exposed to nominal dietary concentrations of 1,000, 1,780, 3,160, 5,620 or 10,000 mg PFBS/kg feed, wet weight (ww) for 5 days and the birds were then fed an untreated diet and observed for up to 17 days. No treatment-related mortalities were observed in the study up to 10,000 mg PFBS/kg, ww feed. Body weight gains of quail exposed to 5620 or 10,000 mg PFBS/kg feed were statistically less than that of unexposed controls. Weight gain of mallards exposed to 10,000 mg PFBS/kg feed was statistically less than that of controls. There were no statistically significant effects on feed consumption of either species. In the acute studies, no observed adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) for mallards and quail were 5620 and 3160 mg PFBS/kg, ww feed, respectively. In a reproduction study, adult quail were exposed to nominal dietary concentrations of 100, 300, or 900 mg PFBS/kg, ww feed for up to 21 weeks. There were no treatment-related mortalities or effects on body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, histopathology measures, or reproductive parameters evaluated in the study when compared to the control group. Concentrations of PFBS in blood serum, liver, and eggs were dose-dependent but were less than the administered dose, indicating biodiminution. Based on the results from the quail reproduction study, the dietary NOAEC was 900 mg PFBS/kg, ww feed (equivalent to an ADI of 87.8 mg PFBS/kg bw/d).

References

  1. 3M (2003) Environmental and health assessment of perfluorooctane sulfonate and its salts. Available on USEPA Administrative Record AR-226–1486Google Scholar
  2. Bailey SA, Zidell RH, Perry RW (2004) Relationship between organ weight and body/brain weight in the rat: What is the best analytical endpoint? Toxicol Pathol 32:448–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Butenhoff J, Lieder P (2006) A two-generation reproduction study with perfluorobutane sulfonate in rats. The Toxicologist 90:252Google Scholar
  4. Butenhoff J, Olsen GW, Pfahles-Hutchens A (2006) The applicability of biomonitoring data for perfluorooctane sulfonate to the environmental public health continuum. Environ Health Perspect 114:1776–1782Google Scholar
  5. Dunnett CW (1955) A multiple comparison’s procedure for comparing several treatments with a control. J Am Stat Assoc 50:1096–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Giesy JP, Kannan K (2001) Global distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate in wildlife. Environ Sci Technol 35:1339–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Giesy JP, Kannan K (2002) Perfluorochemical surfactants in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 36:146A–152ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goecke-Flora CM, Reo NV (1996) Influence of carbon chain length on the hepatic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids. A 19F- and 31P-NMR investigation. Chem Res Toxicol 9:689–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gulley DD (1990) TOXSTAT Release 3.2. The University of WyomingGoogle Scholar
  10. Hekster FM, Laane RWPM, de Voogt P (2003) Environmental and toxicity effects of perfluoroalkylated substances. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 179:99–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hu W, Jones PD, Upham BL, Trosko JE, Lau C, Giesy JP (2002) Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by perfluorinated compounds in rat liver and dolphin kidney epithelial cell lines in vitro and Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo. Toxicol Sci 68:429–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kannan K, Franson JC, Bowerman WW, Hansen KJ, Jones PD, Giesy JP (2001) Perfluorooctane sulfonate in fish eating water birds including bald eagles and albatrosses. Environ Sci Technol 35:3065–3070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kannan K, Tao L, Sinclair E, Pastva SD, Jude DJ, Giesy JP (2005) Perfluorinated compounds in aquatic organisms at various trophic levels in a Great Lakes food chain. Arch. Environ Contam Toxicol 48:559–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kissa E (2001) Fluorinated Surfactants and Repellents. Second Edition. Marcel Dekker, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  15. Martin JW, Mabury SA, Solomon KR, Muir DCG (2003a) Dietary accumulation of perfluorinated acids in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Toxicol Che. 22:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Martin JW, Mabury SA, Solomon KR, Muir DCG (2003b) Bioconcentration and tissue distribution of perfluorinated acids in rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Toxicol Che. 22:196–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Martin JW, Whittle DM, Muir DGG, Mabury SA (2004) Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in a food web from Lake Ontario. Environ Sci Technol 38:373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Newsted JL, Beach SA, Gallagher SA, Giesy JP (2006) Pharmacokinetics and acute lethality of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to mallard and northern bobwhite. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50:411–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Newsted JL, Coady KK, Beach SA, Gallagher S, Giesy JP (2007) Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) when chronically exposed via the diet. Environ. Toxicol Pharmacol. 23:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. NICNAS (2005) Potassium perfluorobutane sulfonate. National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme. Department of Health and Ageing, Australian GovernmentGoogle Scholar
  21. National Research Council (1996) Guide for care and use of laboratory animals. Washington DC. National Academy, 125pGoogle Scholar
  22. Olsen GW, Hansen KJ, Stevenson LA, Burris JM, Mandel JH (2003) Human donor liver and serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorochemicals. Environ Sci Technol 37:888–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Olsen GW, Church TR, Larson EB, van Belle G, Lundberg JK, Hansen KJ, Burris JM, Mandel JH, Zobel LR (2004) Serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other fluorochemicals in an elderly population from Seattle, Washington. Chemosphere 54:1599–15611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rosenstrauch A, Degen AA, Friedlander M (1994) Spermatozoa retention by Sertoli cells during the decline in fertility in aging roosters. Biol Repro 50:129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sinclair E, Mayack DT, Roblee K, Yamashita N, Kannan K (2006) Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl surfactants in water, fish, and birds form New York State. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50:398–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Taniyasu S, Kannan K, Horii Y, Hanari N, Yamashita N (2003) A survey of perfluorooctane sulfonate and related perfluorinated organic compounds in water, fish, birds, and humans from Japan. Environ Sci Technol 37:2634–2639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tomy GT, Budakowski W, Halldorson T, Helm PA, Stern GA, Friesen K, Pepper K, Tittlemier SA, Fisk AT (2004) Fluorinated organic compounds in the eastern arctic marine food web. Environ Sci Technol 38:6475–6481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Upham BL, Deocampo ND, Wurl B, Trosko JE (1998) Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by perfluorinated fatty acids is dependent on the chain length of the fluorinated tail. Int J Cancer 78:491–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. USEPA (2002) Hepatocellular Hypertrophy. HED Guidance Document # G2002.01. Health Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, October 21, 2002, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  30. Wildlife International Ltd (2001) Perfluorobutane sulfonate, potassium salt (PFBS): A flow-through bioconcentration test with the bluegill. Wildlife International Ltd. Project No. 454A–117Google Scholar
  31. Wildlife International Ltd (2003a) A dietary LC50 study with the mallard. Wildlife International Ltd, Project No. 454–112Google Scholar
  32. Wildlife International Ltd (2003b) A dietary LC50 study with the Northern Bobwhite. Wildlife International Lt, Project No. 454–113Google Scholar
  33. Wildlife International Ltd (2005) T-7485: A reproduction study with the Northern Bobwhite. Wildlife International Ltd Project No. 454–116Google Scholar
  34. Wilkelski M, Hau M, Robinson WD, Wingfield JC (2003) Reproductive seasonality of seven neotropical passerine species. The Condor 105:683–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Newsted
    • 1
  • Susan A. Beach
    • 2
  • S. P. Gallagher
    • 3
  • J. P. Giesy
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.ENTRIX, Inc.OkemosUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Laboratory3M CompanyMaplewood, MNUSA
  3. 3.Wildlife International, Ltd.EastonUSA
  4. 4.Department Biomedical Veterinary Sciences and Toxicology CentreUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  5. 5.Department of ZoologyNational Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  6. 6.Biology and Chemistry DepartmentCity University of Hong Kong, KowloonHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations