Predictability of Copper, Irgarol, and Diuron Combined Effects on Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus
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The aim of this work was to investigate the mixture toxicity of Irgarol (2-methylthio-4-t-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine), Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea), and copper upon the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and to compare the observed data with the predictions derived from approaches of Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA). Copper spermiotoxicity was more sensitive (EC50 = 0.018 mg/L) than embryotoxicity (EC50 = 0.046 mg/L). The offspring malformations were mainly P1 type (skeletal alterations) in both cases, probably because copper competes to fix Ca2+. Irgarol and Diuron toxicity has been previously investigated. EC50 mixture embryotoxicity showed an EC50 of 1.79 mg/L, whereas spermiotoxicity mixture effects were lower than 11%. Both CA and IA modeling approaches failed to predict accurately mixture toxicity. For embryotoxicity, the IA model overestimated the mixture toxicity at effect levels of <80%. CA does not represent the worst-case approach showing values lower than IA (embryotoxicity) or similar (spermiotoxicity).